HAKAM INTRODUCTION: Talaq is a right which is only conferred upon a husband to divorce his wife. Nevertheless, this right is not absolute and is in fact a restricted one as it is only permitted to be pronounced twice. As Allah says in the Qur’an,

    A divorce is only permissible twice; after that, the parties should either hold together on equitable terms or separate with kindness” (Al-Baqarah: 229).

    However, a wife is granted the privilege to seek divorce by way of khulu’ (redemption), ta’liq, and fasakh. These rights require sanctions from the Court as stated in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016). The brief definitions of the above three types of divorce by a wife are laid down below:

    • Khulu’: A divorce pronounced by the husband by way of redemption after the amount of the payment of tebus talaq (the wife compensates for her release) is made {See s 49 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 (hereinafter referred to as IFLA 1984) and Surah Al-Baqarah: 229}. 
    • Ta’liq: A divorce due to breach of any stipulation by the husband which is pronounced during the marriage solemnisation, as required by statutes. The breach could be the basis for the wife to lodge a complaint in the Syari’ah Court and it is for the Court to grant the divorce if the breach is satisfactorily proven {See page 175 of the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016)}.
    • Fasakh: A dissolution of marriage through a Court order due to certain acceptable grounds which are recognised under the Islamic law {See page 193 of the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016) and s 52 of the IFLA 1984}. 

    Most Muslim women in Malaysia are only aware of these three types of divorce that they could seek in Court. Little did they know the existence of divorce by means of hakam which is less time-consuming and could be a way out for marriages that are hanging on by a thread. 



    Linguistically speaking, tahkim connotes “conferring power to impose punishment upon someone”, as cited in an article entitled; “Hakam dalam Mahkamah Syariah: Analisis Pelaksanaannya di sisi Prinsip Syariah di Malaysia” written by Hammad Mohamad Dahalan and Mohamad Azhan Yahya. Whereas, the Article provides the technical definition of hakam as “a process where the disputing parties appoint a person each as a hakam (arbitrator) to solve the issue of contention arising between them, in accordance with hukum syara’”. 

    The concept of hakam is not something foreign nor is it a new invention, as it is not only judicially recognised in the context of the Malaysian Islamic Family Law but in fact, it has been encouraged by the Qur’an to be practiced in solving disputes between two parties. The verse related to this is enshrined in Surah An-Nisaa’, verse 35. Allah says:

    And if you fear dissension between the two, send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Acquainted [with all things]

    Reflecting on the above verse, the uniqueness of appointing hakam as an alternative dispute resolution can be seen, whereby the disputing parties are given the right to appoint the arbitrators of their choice. The qualifications required for a hakam before he is appointed would be explained later as we discuss this matter further.

    Through a divorce by way of tahkim, a wife who desires to get a divorce is able to get what she wishes for by following the procedures, as spelled out under Section 48 of the IFLA 1984. 



    A divorce by way of hakam commences the moment a wife files a claim of divorce under Section 47 of the IFLA 1984. Under Section 47(2) of the Act, upon receiving an application for divorce, the Court will issue a summons upon the other party (in this case would be the husband) including a copy of the application and the statutory declaration made by the wife. The summons requires the husband to appear before the Court, in order to inquire whether the husband consents to the divorce or otherwise. 

    If the husband refuses to consent to the divorce, the Court will as soon as possible appoint a conciliatory committee (jawatankuasa pendamai – JKP). The persons appointed under the conciliatory committee, consist of a Religious Officer as Chairman and two other persons, one for the husband and the other for the wife as stated under Section 47(5) of the Act.

    Section 47(14) of the Act states that “where the committee submits to the Court a certificate that it is unable to effect reconciliation and to persuade the parties to resume the conjugal relationship, the Court shall advise the husband to pronounce one talaq before the Court”. Nevertheless, if the husband does not wish to be present in Court to pronounce the talaq or if the husband refuses to pronounce the said talaq, the Court will then refer the case to the attention of hakam and thereby, Section 48 of the Act will apply.

    The State of Selangor has taken the first leap in gazetting the Hakam (State of Selangor) Rules 2014 (hereinafter referred to as the Hakam Rules 2014), which provides detailed guidelines on the implementation of hakam in the Malaysian Syariah Court practice. Rule 3(3) of the Hakam Rules 2014 provides that the Court is required to ensure that syiqaq (constant quarrels between husband and wife which affect the marital harmony – Rule 2 of the Hakam Rules 2014) exists between the husband and wife before the parties are brought before the hakam. This shows that the provision on the appointment of hakam cannot be simply invoked as to avoid from the occurrence of arbitrary or even unnecessary divorce. 

    As stated in a book entitled “Managing Marital Disputes in Malaysia: Islamic Mediators and Conflict Resolution in the Syariah Courtswritten by Sven Cederoth Cederroth and Sharifa Zaleha Syed Hassan, normally a marriage situation is said to be in a state of syiqaq when the husband refuses to let go off the wife (divorce) or when the wife is unable to seek for divorce by means of ta’liq or fasakh due to unavailable grounds. Other instances of syiqaq are listed under Rule 4 of the Hakam Rules 2014. 



    Referring to Rule 4 of the Hakam Rules 2014, hakam can only be appointed from among the close relatives (saudara karib) of the husband and wife who fulfils the qualifications as listed out under sub-rule 8(1) and (2). As interpreted under Rule 4(2) of the Hakam Rules 2014, “close relatives” are referring to “any man who is related by consanguinity, affinity or fosterage and having knowledge on the circumstances of the case”. 

    The qualifications of a hakam as listed out under sub-rule 8(1) are: 

    (a) Professing the religion of Islam;

    (b) Male;

    (c) Possessing a sound mind and reached the age of maturity (mukalaf);

    (d) Just and trustworthy (amanah); and

    (e) Acquiring basic knowledge on family affairs and Hukum Syara’

    Meanwhile, based on Rule 11 of the Hakam Rules 2014, this complies with the directions given by the Court as well as Hukum Syara’ in conducting the Majlis Tahkim (proceeding). Nevertheless, the hakam who is conferred with full authority from the Principal (the husband/wife), has wider power which is to:

    (i) pronounce one talaq or khulu’ before the Court (hakam for the husband)

    (ii) accept the pronouncement of khulu’ before the Court (hakam for the wife) 

    Thus, from here we could see that through hakam, a wife’s wish to dissolve a marriage (even when her husband refuses to consent) can be realised as a hakam with full power is conferred with the authority to pronounce the talaq or khulu’ in order to release the wife from the marriage.



    In order to determine which type of divorce would be pronounced, under Rule 12 of the Hakam Rules 2014, the hakam needs to identify which party causes the syiqaq. Referring to Rule 12(2), if the syiqaq 

    (a) appears to be caused by the husband or both husband and wife, both Hakam shall propose divorce by talak;

    (b) appears to be caused by the wife, both Hakam shall propose divorce by khuluk and the rate of ‘iwadh shall be determined by Hakam;

    (c) cannot be determined in terms of its cause and the husband claims divorce, both Hakam shall propose divorce by talak; or

    (d) cannot be determined in terms of its cause and the wife claims divorce, both Hakam shall propose divorce by khuluk and the rate of ‘iwadh shall be determined by Hakam.

    Whereas, based on Rule 15, either the divorce is made by way of talaq or it is made by way of khulu’, a divorce by way of tahkim has the effect of talaq ba’in. This means, a new ‘aqad is needed if the parties wish to reconcile after the talaq or khulu’ is made. 



    In conclusion, the option that is available for a wife who wishes to dissolve her marriage but whose husband refuses to consent is to resort to hakam. This type of divorce acts as a tool to end the “torture that a wife “is compelled” to go through, for having to sail the voyage of marriage which has irretrievably broken down and has lost the essences of mawaddah, sakeenah wa rahmah. In addition, a divorce by way of hakam is also time-efficient as Rule 16(1) of the Hakam Rules 2014 states that (subject to sub-rule (2)) the duration of the proceeding shall not exceed thirty days from the date of the appointment and declaration issued by the Court. Moreover, the application for a divorce by appointing hakam is also budget-friendly as the parties who are planning to apply for hakam are only required to pay the filing cost which is affordable.

    By raising awareness on hakam (especially to Muslim women), they will know that there exists another right of divorce that Muslim women can resort to, apart from khulu’, fasakh and ta’liq. When other means are to no avail, this type of divorce is hoped to be a saviour for Muslim women who are left “gantung tak bertali” by their inhumane and egoistic husbands. Divorce by way of tahkim can be a form of warning to all husbands out there, that the right to pronounce talaq upon their wives is not absolute. Last but not least, this post aims to urge all of the Muslim women out there, to increase their level of legal literacy as many are still clueless about this right that is statutorily conferred to them, which in turn would detriment their very own lives and interests. Furthermore, All Muslim women and men alike should know their obligations as well as their rights as husbands and wives, in order to ensure that they will discharge their duties responsibly and will not allow others to infringe their rights, naively and ignorantly.  Wallahu a’lam.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan.



    INTRODUCTION: The marriage solemnisation of a 41 year old Kelantanese man to an 11 year old Thai girl (child marriage) sometime in June this year, has sparked outrage among the locals as well as human rights activists abroad, detesting a young child to become someone else’s bride. This much publicised news still remains a spotlight and attracted debates, whether to ban it altogether or to keep it within strict bounds. The question here is what is the position of child marriage in the Islamic context? Does Islam really permit a child to tie the knot?



    1. Before we delve further into the matter and explore the opinions of the Islamic scholars pertaining to it, it is best for us to firstly understand the concept of marriage in Islam. Marriage in Islam is considered as a sacred contract and is in fact encouraged by our beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. if all the marriage requirements are duly met. A hadeeth reported by ‘Abdullah Bin Mas’ud in the Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book: 8 reads:

      0 young men, those among you who can support a wife should marry, for it restrains eyes (from casting evil glances) and preserves one from immorality; but he who cannot afford it should observe fast for it is a means of controlling the sexual desire.

    2. But what most of us fail to notice is that, with marriage comes responsibility. This issue of responsibility is what we need to concern most about when it comes to child marriage, as to whether a young child is capable to shoulder the responsibility of being a wife and a future mother. What we need to bear in mind is that marital commitments are not a one-man responsibility but a joint responsibility of both parties to the marriage contract.
    3. Looking at the requirements of marriage in Islam, we could see that there is no mention of a specific age for a bride or a groom to validly enter into a marriage solemnisation. Despite of the silence on the minimum age requirement for marriage in the Islamic faith, both parties to a marriage need to reach “comprehensive maturity” before an akad can be contracted. This is quoted in an article entitled; “An Islamic Human Rights Perspective on Early and Forced Marriages: Protecting the Sanctity of Marriage” published by Islamic Relief. A profound sense of maturity is therefore a necessity in marriage in order for the parties to fully understand the rights and responsibilities aroused out of marriage.



    1. Next, the definition of “child” in Islam also requires contemplation. It is worth to be highlighted that, unlike the Western perspective on the definition of “child”, a “child” according to the shari’ah is not ultimately be defined according to a specified age. This is based on an article entitled “Child Marriage and Minimum Age of Marriage under Islamic Family Law” by Zanariah Noor. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter referred to as “CRC) in its Article 1 defines a child to be a person under the age of eighteen (18) years unless if the laws of certain countries fixed a lower age. Malaysian laws also adopt the minimum age set by CRC, except for the Adoption Act 1952 which sets the age of under 21 years old for a person to be defined as a child.
    2. On the other hand, in Islam, the determinant is the state of puberty (bulugh). Based on the article entitled; “Child Marriage and Minimum Age of Marriage under Islamic Family Law” by Zanariah Noor, a state of puberty can be determined based on two ways:
      1. Physical change
      2. Age
    3. Referring to the above article, a female is said to have reached the age of puberty when she starts to discharge blood from the womb (haidh), whereas, a male attains the age of bulugh when there is an emission of seminal liquid (maniy). On the other hand, when there is no apparent physical change, the state of bulugh is determined by looking at the age of the person. If a person has attained the age of 15 years (Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafi’i madhahib) or the age of 17 years (Maliki madhab), he/she is said to have attained the age of puberty.



    1. On the issue of releasing a child for her to be wedded with someone, there are differences of opinions among the Islamic scholars. Based on an article entitled; “Bayan Linnas Siri ke-141: Perkahwinan Kanak-kanak Mengikut Perspektif Syariah”, which can easily be accessible via the official website of the Federal Territory Mufti, the scholars which totally prohibit child marriage are Ibn Syubrumah and Abu Bakr al-Asam. The justification of the prohibition is based on the verse from the Qur’an which reads:

      وَابْتَلُوا الْيَتَامَى حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغُوا النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آَنَسْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ

      And try orphans (as regards their intelligence) until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgement in them, release their property to them” (Surah An-Nisaa’: Verse)

    2. According to the above article, the wajh al-dilalah of the above verse is that the age of minority ends at the age of marriage. Thus, there would be no such thing as child marriage based on this interpretation.
    3. On the other hand, the views which assent to child marriage can be further divided into two. The first view opines that child marriage is permissible, depending on the age of bulugh. Thus, no matter how “young” a person is, if she has already attained the age of puberty, it would be valid for her to get married. In contrast, the second view allows child marriage, even though the child has not attained the age of puberty. Nevertheless, the marriage can only be solemnised by “a person who is closest to the child, takes responsibility upon the child the most, loves her the most, knows best the maslahah (interest) of the child”. The person refers to the wali of the girl, i.e. the girl’s father. This opinion is held based on various authentic authorities from the Qur’an and hadeeth. 
    4. The verse of the Qur’an to support this contention is from Surah At-Talaq, Verse 4 which states to the effect:

    وَاللَّائِي يَئِسْنَ مِنَ الْمَحِيضِ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ فَعِدَّتُهُنَّ ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَاللَّائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ

    And those of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the ‘Iddah (prescribed period), if you have doubts (about their periods), is three months, and for those who have no courses [(i.e. they are still immature) their ‘Iddah (prescribed period) is three months likewise, except in case of death].

    Based on the interpretation of this verse by al-Jassas as cited in the above-mentioned article, the part of the verse which goes وَاللَّائِي لَمْ يَحِضْنَ means a child who has not attained the age of maturity (bulugh). This means, if a child has to observe a period of ‘iddah, impliedly, a child can get married.



    1. The question now is: what is the stance of the Federal Territory Mufti with regards to the validity of child marriage? Construing the official written statement of the Federal Territory Mufti on this issue, the Mufti stated that the hukm of a child marriage depends on the laws in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the shari’ah law only permits a marriage to be contracted the earliest at the age of 18 (male) and 16 (female), and any marriage contracted below the specified minimum age, requires a prior written consent from the Hakim Syar’ie. This is laid out under Section 8 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984.
    2. Nevertheless, he further stated that although the hukm of a child marriage is valid (sah) (provided that all the arkan of nikah are fulfilled), a child can only get married if he/she has attained the age where he/she is capable to discharge well the responsibilities that are tied together with a marriage contract and must understand the consequences of marriage such as pregnancy, the duty to provide maintenance, duty to provide conjugal relations, among others.
    3. Interestingly, the Official Website of the Federal Territory Mufti had just published a new article dated 7th August 2018, which refined the discussions on child marriage in the shari’ah perspective by narrowing down the discussion in the context of siyasah shar’iyyah. The article entitled; Bayan Linnas #145: Isu Perkahwinan Kanak-Kanak Menurut Perspektif Siyasah Syar’iyyah defined siyasah shar’iyyah as “a branch of study which studies about administerial affairs of an Islamic State in the context of the laws, policy and system, in accordance with the usul of Islam, despite the non-existence of a specific dalil (proof) in the nas syara’”.
    4. Thus, based on the concept of siyasah shar’iyyah, the Article stated that the Malaysian government has a right to curb child marriage through the implementation of laws and policies in order to ensure the interests of the children are protected, due to the fact that the nature of marriage entails marital responsibilities and obligations which might not be able to be carried out well by young children.
    5. Meanwhile, based on the Islamic principle of maslahah mursalah (simply translated as the consideration of public interest), the Article further stated that the Government has the right to enforce laws which limit the age of marriage involving children, if the laws are ordained in order to protect the interests and welfare of the children. This is as long as the laws are not in contradiction with nas qat’ie. 
    6. Next, based on the principle of sadd az-zari’ah (blocking the means of evil), the Article continued that the Government can hinder/disallow child marriage as a means to prevent from any occurrence of unwanted child exploitation, child abuse, and other detrimental effects arousing from a child marriage (if solemnised arbitrarily).  
    7. Lastly, based on the principle of istihsan (juristic preference), the Article indicated that, despite the existence of legal authorities (dalil) which permit child marriage (as pointed out above), by applying istihsan on the basis of maslahah (protecting the interests of the children), the interests of the children are prioritised and preferred over the contentions which authorise or legalise child marriage. 



    1. In conclusion, the issue of child marriage should not be downplayed by any party, irrespective of race and creed. The interests and welfare of the children should be the paramount consideration before a Shari’ah Court Judge gives his written consent to permit the marriage solemnisation. Besides, the standard operating procedure (SOP) which has been outlined by the Syariah Judicial Department in cases of approving underage marriage applications should be supported, so as to avoid from any occurrence of marital abuse among innocent and vulnerable children.
    2. Despite the existence of juristic opinions which permit child marriage as discussed in the foregoing discussions, based on the principle of siyasah syar’iyyah that has been elaborated above and as what has been pointed out in the official written statement of the Federal Territory Mufti, the Government has the power/authority to limit the minimum age of marriage in order to uphold justice (protecting the interests of vulnerable children and preventing from any incidence of child exploitation or abuse). Following the call to raise the minimum age of marriage for Muslims, as what have been reported in several local news portals, the Selangor Islamic Religious Council (MAIS) had took the first leap before the other Islamic Religious Councils of the rest of the States in Malaysia, by proposing to amend the minimum age of marriage (by increasing the minimum age limit of marriage).
    3. Nevertheless, the proposal to increase the minimum age of marriage for Muslims in Malaysia should not be misunderstood as a means to illegalise what Allah permits (permitting child marriage in certain strict conditions and circumstances, in line with the Shari’ah, which would certainly not jeopardise children’s lives). Instead, as summed up by the Honourable Mufti of the Federal Territory, looking at the ‘urf in Malaysia, child marriage is best disallowed in accordance with law by following the Islamic principles of maslahah mursalah, sad al-zari’ah and istihsan. Whereas, exceptions would only be applicable in certain remote cases, after adhering to very strict conditions set by the Court. Wallahu a’lam.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan



    QUESTION REGARDING CUSTODY RIGHTS: Assalamu’alaikum. I am Natasha Fellina from Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. I have already divorced with my husband for five (5) years already and out of the marriage, we are blessed with two kids, a son aged 16 named Aman (not his real name) and a daughter aged 14 years old named Arina (not her real name). Ever since we got divorced, Aman stays with my husband at Lorong Maarof, Bangsar, and he is enrolled in a private school in Bangsar. On the other hand, Arina resides with me at Ampang and also attends school at the same place where I work at as a Chemistry teacher. I was told by my former husband’s sister that my former husband is planning to get married to her office secretary, Belinda. That news infuriated me as I have a feeling that my husband’s attention towards Aman might diminish and his welfare might be neglected due to the extra commitment that he will have once he got married to Belinda. I am not trying in the least to separate my son from his own father, but as his mother, who gave birth to him, and carried him in the womb for nine whole months, all I want is for my son to get the best for his life and his future. I am willing to have full custody over both of the children and would prefer Aman to stay with me rather than having to stay with someone that he barely knew of. I doubt Belinda could be a good mother to a young adult like Aman, as she is only 25, a very young lady herself and she has zero knowledge and experience about motherhood. Therefore, my question here is, with regards to the children’s custody (hadhanah), between my former husband and I, who amongst us would be best entitled with the custody over both of the children? This is because, I remain single ever since the divorce took place 5 years ago, and the children have already reached the age of mumayyiz. How about the visitation rights if one of us is granted with full custody over the children? Thank you.



    1. Wa’alaikumussalam. Thank you Puan Natasha for the questions. I truly understand and would like to express my deepest concern towards the worries that you have regarding your children’s future and welfare. Before we delve further into the matter, we firstly have to determine the underlying issues, in order to be able to reach a viable solution. The issues which can be drawn are:
    • Whether the biological mother can be granted with the custody rights over the children?
    • Whether the visitation rights can be conferred to the other party, should the custody is granted to one of the parties.




    1. After determining the issues in this present question, it is advisable for us to have the correct and clear understanding about custody rights or hadhanah in Islam. According to a book entitled “Islamic Family Law in Malaysia” by Najibah Mohd Zin et al. (2016), hadhanah is literally defined as “to clasp in one’s arm or to embrace someone”. The book continues to provide the technical definition of hadhanah as defined by Al-Sayyid Sabiq, which carries the meaning of “the care or protection granted to a child or a lunatic who has yet to be independent, by way of providing for their needs, protecting them from danger and nurturing their body, soul and mind.


    1. From the above definitions, we could understand that the concept of hadhanah transcends beyond the physical care of a child, as it also includes the nourishment of the inner aspects of the child, such as nurturing the correct ‘aqeedah in the child’s life. Interestingly, our present case involves children who have attained the age of mumayyiz, which means the age of discernment between right and wrong.


    1. Referring to Section 81 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984, subject to Section 82 of the Act, “the mother shall be of all persons the best entitled to the custody of her infant children during the connubial relationship as well as after its dissolution.” However, since this case involves children who have attained the age of mumayyiz, and not infant children, this provision could not automatically be applied in this case.


    1. We have to bear in mind that in determining the person who is best entitled to claim the right of being a hadhinah in a case where the children have attained the age of discernment, based on the case of Bashirah bt Ishak v Zawawi bin Zakaria [2015] 3 SHLR 7, the learned Judge had referred to kitab al Um, written by Imam al-Shafi’e, Volume 3, which states that when a child has attained the age of seven or eight years old, i.e. a sense of maturity, the child has the liberty to choose either to be with the father or the mother.


    1. The above finding is in line with Section 84(2) of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 which states:

    … and if the child has reached the age of discernment (mumaiyiz), he or she shall have the choice of living with either of the parents, unless the Court otherwise orders.


    1. The right to choose which is conferred upon the children is also underpinned in a hadeeth which is cited in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin et al. (2016), whereby the hadeeth reads:

    Narrated by Abu Hurairah that a woman came to the Prophet p.b.u.h. and asked: O Messenger of Allah, my (former) husband wants to take my son away when he (my son) is capable of bringing water from the well of Abu ‘Inabah and it is very useful for me. The Messenger said to the child: This is your father and this is your mother, choose either one of them. The child chose his mother and then both of them left.


    1. The rationale of granting the mumayyiz child with the right to choose his or her own custodian is due to the fact that the interest of the child overrides the interests of the parents. The presumption is that the person that is chosen by the child is more loving and caring towards the child and thus the interests of the child would thereby be more protected and guaranteed, as expounded in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin et al. (2016).


    1. The principle of the welfare of the child as the paramount consideration in child custody application is reflected in the provision of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984, Section 86(2) which reads:

    (2) In deciding in whose custody a child should be placed, the paramount consideration shall be the welfare of the child and, subject to that consideration, the Court shall have regard to –

    (b) the wishes of the child, where he or she is of an age to express an independent opinion. 


    1. Nonetheless, the right conferred upon the child to choose his custodian is not an absolute right as the right must not jeopardise the child’s upbringing or even welfare. There are three conditions which need to be satisfied before a child can exercise his/her right to choose the guardian. The conditions have been outlined in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin et al. (2016). They are as follows:
    • The persons elected must be from ahl al-hadanah as stated in page 144, volume 9 of Al Mughni by Ibn Qudamah.
    • The requirements of hadhinah must be duly satisfied by both of the persons chosen by the child as stated in Minhaj, page 392 by Al-Nawawi and at page 92, Volume 5 of Al-Umm written by Al-Shafi’e.
    • In exercising this right, the child must possess the ability to make a decision, as quoted in Al-Mughni, page 144, Volume 9 by Ibn Qudamah and at page 92, Volume 5, Al-Umm by Al-Shafi’e.


    1. A child’s participation in a judicial proceeding involving the right of child custody is in fact recognised by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, in its Article 12(1), as cited in an article entitled; Children’s Participation in Custody and Access Proceeding, written by Roslina Che Soh.


    1. Based on case laws such as the case of Bashirah bt Ishak v Zawawi bin Zakaria [2015] 3 SHLR 7, the Court would conduct an interview with the children to know the guardian(s) of their choice that they would want to stay with, before the Court makes its wise decision. With regards to the power of the Court in granting the right of child custody, Section 86(4) of the Act deserves to be highlighted. It says, “Where there are two or more children of a marriage, the Court shall not be bound to place both or all in the custody of the same person but shall consider the welfare of each independently.


    1. Thus, based on the above provision and the Court’s ruling in the case of Bashirah bt Ishak v Zawawi bin Zakaria [2015] 3 SHLR 7, provided that the children agreed to remain with their respective parents and should the Court be satisfied that the children’s welfare are guaranteed by preserving the status quo of the children; i.e. the son to be remained with the husband and the daughter to stay with the wife, the decision pertaining to the right of custody would likely be as such.


    1. Nevertheless, if both children decide to be with the biological mother, then it is likely that the status quo would be changed, provided that the welfare of the children are best protected, and the wife has fulfilled all the qualifications of a hadhinah and has not committed any act which could disqualify her from being a hadhinah. Thus, in such a case, the answer to this issue would be in the affirmative.




    1. With regards to the above issue, the Law makers have foreseen the interest of the parent who is not granted with full custody, by granting him/her the right of visitation and access to the child. This can be seen under Section 87 of the Act which says:

    (c) provide for the child to visit a parent deprived of custody or any member of the family of a parent who is dead or has been deprived of custody at such times and for such periods as the Court considers reasonable;

    (d) give a parent deprived of custody or any member of the family of a parent who is dead or has been deprived of custody the right of access to the child at such times and with such frequency as the Court considers reasonable;


    1. Hence, in line with the decision made in a 2014 case of Faizuddin bin Tasaruddin against Zairawati binti Mohd Fauzi, which can be accessed on Jabatan Kehakiman Syariah Selangor’s (JAKESS) website, the parent who is being denied from the custody has the right of visitation and access to the children. And based on the case of Bashirah bt Ishak v Zawawi bin Zakaria [2015] 3 SHLR 7, if the children are to be placed separately, one with the wife and the other with the husband, the segregation should not break the ties and relationship between the children as siblings, and between the children and both parents as a divorce in Islam is bound by three magical words which are “separate with kindness” – Qur’an:229.




    1. In conclusion, as this case involves mumayyiz children, a right to choose the guardian of their choice is conferred due to their maturity of thinking to make a sound decision. This right is enshrined under Section 84(2) of the Islamic Family Law Federal Territory Act (1984) which states: … and if the child has reached the age of discernment (mumaiyiz), he or she shall have the choice of living with either of the parents, unless the Court otherwise orders.


    1. If one of the parties (the husband/wife) disagrees / is not satisfied with the choice made by the children, the Court will commence a full trial, whereby the Court would conduct an interview with the children to know the guardian(s) of their choice that they would want to stay with, before the Court makes its wise decision.


    1. However, as has been discussed above, the right to choose which is granted to the children is not absolute. The discretion lies with the Court to decide otherwise if it deems that the welfare of the child is better guaranteed and protected in deciding as such. If both children choose to be with the biological mother, the welfare of the children are protected by placing them under the custodian of the mother, the mother has fulfilled all the qualifications of a hadhinah and has not committed acts which could make her lose her right of hadhanah, then, it is most likely that both of the children would be placed under the care and custody of the biological mother.


    1. On the other hand, the parent who has been denied from the right of child custody would be granted with visitation right. As the issue of hadhanah involves several matters, it is advisable for you to consult a Syari’e lawyer whose area of expertise also covers the area of hadhanah, with the hope that you would be better enlightened pertaining to this case. Wallahu a’lam.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan



    QUESTION REGARDING THE VALIDITY OF TALAQ VIA SMS: Assalamu’alaikum Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. I am Qasrina Qabeel from Sri Hartamas, Kuala Lumpur. I was married in accordance with hukum syara’ on 15th October 2015. We are blessed with one child, named Qaisara Kareem, now aged 2 years 6 months. Our marriage went well throughout the first two years of our marriage. Sadly, the third year of our marriage turned into a state of turmoil just as I found out that my husband is planning to marry his former student studying at the university where he works at. Obviously, I strongly object and take a stand against his plan especially that our marriage is still at its infancy stage and our daughter is still very young and needs the attention and commitment of both parents to develop and grow up healthily. I believe, if he were to marry another one, his attention towards our one and only child would slacken. What more, the lady had just graduated and is much younger than me. I do believe that his love and attention towards me would also diminish. I had twice gone to Lisa’s (the lady’s) house, only to give her advice to leave our family alone and find any other man as long as that man is not my husband. She must have told my husband about this, as one day, during office hours, he had sent me a text message (SMS) to my phone which reads, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.” I felt challenged by my husband’s words and for the third time, I went to Lisa’s house just to prove to Lisa and my husband that I am not a coward without realising that my action, though could satisfy my feelings and anger, might also bite me like a double-edged sword. My question here is thus, is the text message that my husband sent to me amounts to a valid pronouncement of talaq (Ta’lik Kinayah)? And did my act of meeting Lisa after receiving the message from my husband would constitute a valid talaq ta’liq? Wassalam, thank you.



    1. Wa’alaikumussalam. Thank you, Puan Qasrina for the questions. First and foremost, I would like to extend my sincere sympathies and concern towards the adversity that befalls you. By examining the facts that you have presented and from the questions that you have posed to us, a few legal issues can be formularised, which are:
    • What is the form of pronouncement made by the husband?
    • Whether the text message (SMS) fulfils the valid conditions and pillars of talaq?
    • Whether there is a valid ta’liq divorce?




    1. Based on the facts above, your husband had sent you a text message (SMS) which reads, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.Thus, the question which lies here is that, what is the actual or exact form of pronouncement of talaq that your husband had made. It is therefore crucial and of substance to determine whether the pronouncement of talaq which was made in the form of writing (kitabah) is classified as a sarih (express) or kinayah (implied) pronouncement of talaq.


    1. Based on the book entitled al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, written by Mustafa al Bugho and ‘Ali al-Syarbaji, page 116, a pronouncement of talaq can be divided into sarih (express) and kinayah (implied). Based on the abovementioned book, “Sarih talaq is a pronouncement of talaq which is used expressly/clearly signifying the meaning of talaq and the wording cannot be interpreted with other meaning(s). The wording or pronouncement can be classified into three, namely; talaq / divorce, release/free and separate.”


    1. Whereas, kinayah means “…every wording/pronouncement which may be interpreted as talaq or other than talaq,” as stated in the abovementioned book. In another kitab entitled al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by the eminent scholar; Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 502, kinayah pronouncement includes the pronouncement of talaq which is made in writing. Referring to the SMS which was sent by your husband and the aforementioned authorities from hukum syara’, it can clearly be seen that your husband’s SMS would constitute a pronouncement of talaq in the form of kinayah due to the following reasons:
    • The whole wordings of the sentence in the SMS of your husband did not contain the word “talaq”, “divorce”, “release” or “separate”. In fact, the word used could be interpreted to be meant as talaq or other than talaq.
    • Whereby the “pronouncement” was made in the form of a short message (SMS) which was typed by your husband but was not pronounced verbally to you at any material time.


    1. It is also important to note that, a kinayah talaq pronounced by way of SMS is merely the same as a written talaq (kitabah). This is following the maxim which is laid down in Article 69 of the Majalla which reads; “الكتاب كالخطاب” which carries the meaning of ‘the letter is considered as an oral expression’ as cited in the “Introduction to Middle Eastern Lawby Chibli Mallat. Thus, when it comes to a pronouncement of talaq in the form of SMS, as what happens in this present case, in order to determine whether the SMS is a kinayah or a sarih form of pronouncement of talaq, the word used in the SMS must be observed and considered, as what has been discussed in the foregoing paragraphs. And as discussed in the preceding paragraphs, if the pronouncement is in the form of kinayah, the intention of the husband whether to/not to divorce needs to be taken into account.




    1. In the message (SMS), your husband had written, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.” The message was sent to your phone number from your husband’s phone number as stated in the facts of this case. In determining whether a valid talaq has been made or otherwise, based on the text message, it depends on whether all the pillars and conditions of a valid talaq have been fulfilled. In the book entitled al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 479, the pillars of talaq according to the Shafi’ie Madzhab consist of five pillars:
    • The one who pronounces the talaq (Taliq)
    • Sighah
    • Mahal
    • Possessing wilayah
    • Possessing qasad


    1. Referring to the first pillar of talaq, if your husband is a mukallaf (baligh (had reached the age of puberty) and of sound mind) and had not been coerced to pronounce the talaq, thus the first pillar is fulfilled. Moving to the second pillar i.e. sighah, your husband had pronounced the talaq in the form of kinayah and in a written form which was a text message (SMS). Thus, since it was a kinayah form of pronouncement of talaq, it requires intention. If the lafaz or pronouncement is not accompanied with an intention to make a talaq, the pronouncement would not amount to a valid This is based on al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili.


    1. Next, the third pillar of talaq is mahal. Referring to an unreported case of Mahad Ahmed Mohamed v Natasha Binti Zolkeflee, mahal talaq refers to whom the talaq is addressed to. Kitab I’anat al-Talibin states that, to make the lafaz talaq as one complete sentence, the language used in the sentence must also be comprehendible which shall include the status or the position of the person to whom the talaq was pronounced (mahal talaq) and the wording of the talaq In the above cited case, the Court referred to the sentence “It’s over between us”, whereby in the Plaintiff’s testimony, the Plaintiff admitted that the word “us” referred to both the Plaintiff and Defendant. The Defendant also testified that the Plaintiff had pronounced the talaq and had understood that the pronouncement was meant to divorce the Defendant. Thus, the Court was satisfied that the requirement of mahal talaq was fulfilled.


    1. Applying the above principle to this present case, the pronouncement of talaq was made in a written form, by way of kinayah, and was sent as a text message to your phone number by your husband. Thus, the third pillar is fulfilled as the words “I will move out of your life was addressed to you by your husband, as the lawful wife of your husband. From the sentence “I will move out of your life, the word “I” refers to your husband and the word “your” refers to you.


    1. Moving to the fourth pillar which is possessing wilayah. Wilayah means authority. In the above cited case, the Court was satisfied that the requirement of wilayah was also fulfilled in that case as when the talaq was pronounced, the Defendant was still the lawful wife of the Plaintiff and thus, was still under the wilayah or authority of the Plaintiff as the lawful husband of the Defendant. Applying the principle to this present case, if you have not been divorced by your husband prior to receiving the message (SMS) and you are still the lawful wife of your husband whilst the talaq is being pronounced, thus, this requirement is also fulfilled.


    1. The last pillar of talaq is qasad or intention. Since your husband had pronounced a kinayah talaq, thus, based on the kitab of al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili as discussed above, only if your husband intended to divorce you whilst typing the message to you, would the pronouncement of talaq via the SMS, constitutes a valid pronouncement of talaq.




    1. It is also crucial to take into consideration that the lafaz kinayah was made together with ta’liq which states, “If you meet Lisa once more, I will move out of your life”. According to the kitab of al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 565, sighah could be in the forms of attaching/annexing talaq to a matter which happens in the future and sighah which is not attached to a condition. There are three types of talaq, which are instant talaq, conditional talaq and talaq that is based on a future time.


    1. Based on the ta’liq that was made by your husband, it was a conditional ta’liq whereby talaq will only take place should the subject matter of the ta’liq is committed in the future, using the word such as; if, when, among others. Therefore, the lafaz talaq that was pronounced by your husband to you via the text message (SMS) was a lafaz kinayah and was pronounced conditionally (ta’liq) whereby, the talaq was conditional upon your meeting with Lisa after receiving the message from your husband.


    1. Nevertheless, despite you having met Lisa after receiving the SMS from your husband, your husband had used the word or term “will” or in Malay it would be translated to “akan”, a term which is expressing a future tense as elucidated in the Oxford Dictionaries. Thus, it is still questionable whether talaq would instantly fall or not. Two questions have to be considered. Firstly, whether the term “will” is merely a threat to divorce you should you meet Lisa once more after receiving the message, or in other words, whether your husband really intends to take an action to divorce you when using the word “will”. Secondly, whether talaq would instantly fall, once the action of, i.e. meeting Lisa, is fulfilled. Only if your husband intends to divorce you instantly once the action is fulfilled, would the pronouncement of talaq ta’liq constitute a valid pronouncement of divorce.



    1. In conclusion, based on the above discussions, the pronouncement of talaq that was made by your husband (validity of talaq via SMS) was a kinayah pronouncement of talaq. Moreover, since the pronouncement of talaq is attached with a condition, such a pronouncement would constitute a conditional divorce (talaq ta’liq). The talaq ta’liq would only be valid after the condition is fulfilled. Nevertheless, since the words used are ambiguous and not clearly expressing talaq, thus, it depends on the intention of your husband if he really intends to divorce you or not. Since this issue involves several complicated matters, it is best and advisable for you to seek the aid and assistance of a Syarie lawyer to advise you regarding this matter. Wallahu a’lam. Thank you.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan

  • Marriage Validity and Attribution of Nasab


    QUESTION ABOUT MARRIAGE VALIDITY: Assalamu’alaikum Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. I am Khairul Bin Asri from Bandar Baru Bangi. I got married to my wife; Arini Syakilla in Taiping, Perak and are blessed with one daughter. During the marriage ceremony, my wife’s father was still in existent and lived in Kerteh, Terengganu and was also the wali mujbir of my wife. However, my father in-law did not become the wali for my wife as we solemnised our marriage without his knowledge as my wife doubted that his father would permit us to get married since we were then still in our foundation studies at the Foundation Centre. Nevertheless, my wife never asked for his permission and consent prior to our marriage, hence, there was actually no evidence that my father in law refused to consent. In turn, the man who became my wife’s wali was a man by the name of Ahmad Bin Tokiman, who claimed to be a wali hakim. Problems arose when we received a letter from the Office of the Administration of Islam, Taiping, Perak, stating that our marriage certificate was a forgery and was never issued by any Deputy Registrar of the kariah in the area. I have two questions to ask. Firstly, whether our marriage was lawful and secondly, whether the nasab of our daughter can be attributed to me?



    1. Wa’alaikumussalam Encik Khairul. Thank you for the genuine questions. I would like to express my concern towards the problems that you and your wife are currently facing and will try my level best to attend to your queries. First and foremost, referring to the facts that you have presented, we have to determine the issues which need to be addressed. There are two issues here, namely:
      1. Whether the marriage which was solemnised in Taiping was valid according to Syara’  (Marriage validity)?
      2. Whether the nasab of the daughter can be attributed to the father?




    1. In determining marriage validity, we must observe whether all the pillars of a valid marriage in accordance with syara’ are met. Legally speaking, Section 11 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 provides that:

    A marriage shall be void unless all conditions necessary, according to Hukum Syarak for the validity thereof are satisfied.


    1. The provision does not list out one by one the pillars of marriage, hence, credible Islamic books can be of good reference. Referring to Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma’rifati Ma’ani Alfaz Al-Minhaj by Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Khatib Al-Sharbini, there are 5 pillars of nikah which are also reiterated in kitab Al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, Juz 4, page 55. The pillars of marriage are:
    • Bridegroom(az-zauj)
    • Bride (az-zaujah)
    • Guardian (wali)
    • Witnesses (Syahidain an-Nikah)
    • Pronouncement of Offer and Acceptance (As-Sighah Ijab wa Qabul)


    1. Referring to the first pillar of marriage, i.e. bridegroom, we have to consider whether all of the conditions which are required for the bridegroom to satisfy are fulfilled. The conditions are stated in kitab Al-Iqna’ Fi al-Faz Abi Syuja’, Volume 2, page 246. Firstly, the man is lawful to be married. Secondly, the consent to marry is made voluntarily not under duress. Thirdly, a specific man. Fourthly, the man knows that the woman is lawful to be married.


    1. Other conditions can be seen from the Qur’an, such as the man must be a Muslim. This is stated in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 221 which states, “And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you.” The bridegroom must also not have four wives at the time of the marriage ceremony. This is in consonance with the verse of the Qur’an which restricts the maximum number of wives for a man to get married up to four, whereby in Surah An-Nisa’, verse 3, Allah says, “And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice].”


    1. Hence, if you have fulfilled all of these conditions and are not under ihram during the marriage solemnisation, then the first pillar of marriage is fulfilled.


    1. Next, with regards to the second pillar of marriage, which is the bride, in the Qur’an, in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 221, whereby Allah says:

    Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters) until they believe. A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman even though she allures you.

    In addition, in another verse Allah says, “(Lawful to you in marriage) are not only chaste women who are believers but chaste women among the people of the Book revealed before your time ­ – when you give them their dowers and desire chastity not lewdness nor secret intrigues.”


    1. Thus, based on the above two verses, the bride must either be a Muslim or a kitabiyyah. Since there is no mention in the facts that you have presented that your wife is a kitabiyyah, a discussion pertaining to it need not be elaborated further. Apart from being a Muslim, based on the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016), the bride must also not be associated with any marital relationship at the time of the marriage. Moreover, she must also ensure that she is not within the prohibited degrees of blood or fosterage relationship.


    1. Therefore, if your wife has no obstruction to get married by fulfilling all the conditions of a valid bride, thus, the second pillar of marriage is also said to have been fulfilled.


    1. Moving on to the third pillar of marriage, which is wali. This pillar is of great importance in this present case before us since your marriage was solemnised without your wife’s wali’s knowledge and consent. Shahrin Nasution in his book called Fiqh Lengkap Perkahwinan, defines wali as “a person who has the right to give away a woman in marriage”. This is cited in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016). The necessity to have a wali in a marriage is emphasised in the hadith of the Prophet which states to the effect that: “There is no marriage without wali”.


    1. Based on the facts that you have stated, during the marriage ceremony, your wife’s father who was also a wali mujbir was in existent. Nevertheless, the marriage was solemnised by a purported wali hakim, or simply said, by a person falsely representing himself as a wali hakim. We firstly have to define the meanings of wali mujbir and wali hakim.


    1. Wali mujbir is a guardian with the power of compulsion, which means, he has complete rights over the woman under his care, to marry her off to a man that is of the same/similar social status (kafaah) without her prior consent. The power to become wali mujbir is specially designated to the father and the paternal grandfather of the bride only. This is stated by Mohammad Azam Hussain and Alias Azhar in their article entitled; The Definition of Wali (Guardian) in Marriage from the Perspective of Fiqh and Family Law in Malaysia. Section 2 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 also defines wali mujbir as the father or the paternal grandfather and above.


    1. On the other hand, wali hakim means “a Sultan or a Leader as the Head of an Islamic State or a Judge or any other person who is granted permission and conferred with the power to become a wali nikah for the woman.” This is stated by Al-Syeikh al-Imam al-‘Allamah Muwaffaq al-Din Abi Muhammad ‘Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mahmud bin Qudamah, 1972 in Al-Mughni, Volume 7 and cited in the aforementioned article.


    1. Whereas, in Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, Volume 7, states that “the majority of the ‘ulamaa’ opines that a marriage solemnisation is not valid except if it is solemnised by a wali. A woman cannot marry herself off, nor can she marry off others, and she also cannot appoint others to become a wali to marry her off. If such acts are done, the marriage is not valid regardless whether the woman has already come of age, is of sound mind and is already matured…If the wali refuses to marry her off, thus the hakim shall act as the wali for a person who has no wali.


    1. Referring to the facts that you have presented, when the marriage between you and your wife was solemnised in Taiping, Perak, the wali mujbir was in existent and stayed in Kerteh, Terengganu. A wali mujbir can only be substituted with a wali hakim upon three main grounds, namely, when the wali refuses to consent, when the wali disappears (ghaib) or when he is unavailable. These three grounds are stipulated under section 13(b) of the Enactment.


    1. With regards to the first ground, in order to know whether there is in fact a refusal from the wali, there must be a prior confirmation and approval by the Judge. Our religion strongly detests if a wali refuses to marry off the woman under his guardianship without lawful reasons. This is explained in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016).


    1. In this present case, there is no express evidence to show that the wali had refused to give his consent for the marriage, as you and your wife did not even convey about the marriage to the wali and the wali did not even have the knowledge regarding the marriage. And your wife only had doubt on whether the wali would or would not consent to the marriage. Thus, the first ground to allow a wali hakim to substitute a wali mujbir would not be successfully invoked.


    1. Moving on the last two grounds, i.e., when the wali disappears or when the wali is unavailable, the issue of distance comes into the picture. Based on the decided local cases such as in the cases of Hashim v Fatimah [1977] 5 JH 106, Zakaria v Maria [1977] 3 JH 97, and Saad bin Syafie v Sarimah bt Saad [1992] 9(2) JH 203, only if the wali resides in a place which is situated more than two marhalah from the place of marriage, can the marriage be solemnised by a wali hakim, provided that other required conditions are fulfilled.


    1. In this present case, despite the distance between Kerteh and Taiping exceeds two marhalah, the “wali hakim” which solemnised your marriage was a falsely represented wali hakim. And based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, there was also no pronouncement of wakalah wali from the wali mujbir to the man who solemnised the marriage. Thus, the status of that juru nikah which was tainted with forgery would make the requirement of wali not to be fulfilled in this present case.


    1. Next, with regards to the fourth pillar of marriage, which is the presence of two witnesses during the marriage ceremony, the Qur’an, in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 282 states:

    and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as you choose for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her


    1. Based on al-Khatib al-Sharbani, page 235, written by Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Muhammad, a marriage is invalid except if it is solemnised in the presence of two male witnesses who are free, ‘adil, able to hear, see and understand the ijab (offer) and qabul (acceptance). Since the facts are silent with regards to the issue of witnesses, thus, the requirement of two witnesses as has been discussed above needs to be satisfied in order to meet the requirement of the fourth pillar of marriage.


    1. The last pillar of marriage is the pronouncement of offer and acceptance (as-sighah ijab wa qabul). Based on Ala’eddin Kharofa, page 45, as cited in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016), there are a few conditions of a valid pronouncement of ijab and qabul. Firstly, the sighah must be made in an official ceremonial gathering. Secondly, both of the parties must be able to hear each other and the pronouncement should be comprehendible by each of them that the contract is for the purpose of marriage. Thirdly, the acceptance should tally with the offer that is made, and lastly, the marriage contract should be witnessed by two witnesses which must be legally acceptable. Since the facts are silent about how the sighah was pronounced, thus, considering all the conditions of a valid sighah are fulfilled, the last pillar of marriage is said to be fulfilled.


    1. Nevertheless, based on the above discussion, since the requirement of a valid wali is not present in this case, based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, the marriage would be fasid or in other words, it would result to an irregular marriage. A fasid marriage happens when there is a lacking of the requirements of a valid marriage such as a marriage without a wali. This is stated by Abdul Azis Bin Abdul Rawi Bin Ali Al-Jabar in his kitab, Al-Hukm bi-Ithbat an-Nasab. Thus, both of you would be separated (faraq) due to the irregularity of the marriage. And the consummation which took place due to the fasid marriage would constitute wati syubhah (syubhah intercourse). Based on Section 2 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, a syubhah intercourse is interpreted as an “intercourse performed on erroneous impression that the marriage was valid when in fact the marriage was not valid (fasid) or intercourse by mistake and includes any intercourse not punishable by Had in Islam”.




    1. Referring to an article entitled, “Pensabitan Nasab dan Anak Tak Sah Taraf dari Perspektif Syariah dan Perundangan Islam di Malaysia”, written by Paizah Hj. Ismail, according to the fuqaha’, lineage (nasab) in Islam can be acquired via three means. One of them is when there is a syubhah intercourse between a man and a woman.


    1. In the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, there is a specific provision with regards to a syubhah. It is stated under Section 114 of the Enactment. The Section provides, “Where a man has syubhah sexual intercourse with a woman, and she is subsequently delivered of a child between the period of six qamariah months to four qamariah years after the intercourse, the paternity of the child shall be ascribed to the man.”


    1. Based on the above provision and based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, if your daughter was 6 months after your marriage, then, the nasab of your daughter could be attributed to you as the biological father of the child.




    1. In conclusion, based on the foregoing discussions, the answer to the question on your marriage validity is that, your marriage that was solemnised in Taiping, Perak by a falsely represented wali hakim, would result in the marriage being fasid (irregular) due to the non-fulfilment of one of the pillars of nikah (arkan an-nikah).Whereas, in respect of the attribution of lineage of your daughter to you, if it can be satisfactorily proven that your daughter was born 6 months after the solemnisation of your marriage, then, it is most likely that the nasab of your daughter could be attributed to you. Since your queries involved several complicated matters, I humbly advise you to seek and consult a Syarie Lawyer who is eligible to address and answer these questions.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan

  • break-off engagement before marriage


    BREAK-OFF ENGAGEMENT QUESTION: Assalamu’alaikum Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. I am Nur from Bangsar Utama. I was engaged with my ex-fiancée in a proper engagement ceremony that was held at my parents’ house early March this year. Both of our families have set the date of our marriage ceremony to be held on 15th July 2018. To my utter dismay, in mid-June very recently, my ex-fiancée had phoned me to convey that he desperately had to cancel off our engagement.  I was caught by surprise to receive the terrible news as we were always in good terms ever since we got engaged. What angered me more and made me feel humiliated was to find out that my ex-fiancée had actually married his neighbour in Bukit Damansara early this month. I was so disappointed as my parents and I have spent a large sum of money on catering, wedding dress and shoes, door gifts, wedding cards and we have paid deposit for the wedding venue. I would like to inquire if there is a possibility for me to recover the expenses that we have spent as preparations for the wedding and if I could claim anything from my ex-fiancée due to humiliation and embarrassment that we have to bear in consequence of the cancellation of engagement? Thank you.



    • Wa’alaikumussalam. Thank you Puan Nur for the question. First and foremost, I would like to express my utmost sympathy towards the trial that had befallen you and your family due to the cancellation of engagement. As a believer of the Muslim creed, I believe that there is an underlying hikmah (wisdom) that is only known by Allah regarding the incident that had occurred to you and your family. Before I give some legal advice which hopefully would enlighten you on how to resolve this matter, it is best to firstly understand the concept of engagement in Islam before we delve into the legal repercussions and remedies of breach of betrothal (engagement) in the eyes of the Malaysian Islamic Family Law. 


    • According to the The Islamic Law of Personal Status written by Jamal J Nasir, betrothal or engagement in Islam can be defined as:

    The request by the man for the hand of a certain woman in marriage, and approach to her, or to her next of kin, with a view to describing his status, and to negotiating with them the subject of the contract and their respective demands in that connection.

    From this definition, betrothal can simply be understood as a proposal by a man for the woman’s hand in marriage either by asking her directly or through an intermediary. This proposal would be a good avenue for the man to explain and tell the family of his future wife regarding his status, financial standing and family background, among others. It is also a norm that both families would discuss in detail about the engagement contract such as the total or estimated amount of marriage expenses to be spent for the marriage ceremony, the date and place of the ceremony, etc. 

    • What most of us might not know and realise is that betrothal or engagement is not merely an adat (custom). It is also recognised and in fact encouraged under the Islamic law. There are authorities for betrothal in the Holy Qur’an and hadith of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. In Surah Al-Baqarah verse 135, Allah says:

    There is no blame on you if you make an offer of betrothal or hold it in your heart. Allah knows that you cherish them in your hearts.

    In an authentic hadith, the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. says:

    When one of you asks a woman in marriage, if he is able to look at what will induce him to marry her, he should do so. Jabir said I asked a girl in marriage. I used to look at her secretly, until I looked at what induced me to marry her. I therefore married her. (Saheeh Muslim) 

    • Having known the general concept of betrothal in Islam, we shall proceed in determining whether you have a right in law, to claim the wedding preparation expenditures and damages due to humiliation. A few issues can be summarised as follows:
      • Whether can claim the compensation for the wedding preparation expenses?
      • Whether can claim damages due to humiliation?



    • The issue pertaining breach of betrothal is not foreign under the Islamic law. As betrothal is a species of contract or a covenant, verse pertaining to breach of covenant would apply. In the Qur’an, Allah says in Surah Al-Israa’ verse 34:

    وَاَوۡفُوۡا بِالۡعَهۡدِ​ۚ اِنَّ الۡعَهۡدَ كَانَ مَسۡـُٔوۡلًا‏

    And fulfil (every) covenant. Verily, the covenant, will be questioned about.

    • In another verse, Allah says in Surah Al-Ma’idah, verse 1:

    يٰۤـاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَوۡفُوۡا بِالۡعُقُوۡدِ​

    O you who have believed, fulfil [all] contracts.

    • Whereas the hadith  of the Prophet which governs this matter is reported in Saheeh Muslim which says to the effect that:

    Muslims are bound by their promises and the conditions which they have agreed to.

    • On the other hand, the four major schools of thought (madhhahib) provide different stances regarding breach of betrothal. According to the Hanafi School, if the gifts are still intact and their characters remain unchanged, or have not been consumed nor destroyed, the giver can request for the return of the gifts, if the breach of engagement is committed by the other party. Meanwhile, the Maliki School is of the view that if the breach is committed by the man, he has no right to seek the return of the gifts given by him. In contrast, if the woman is the one in breach, the man would have the right to request for the return of the gifts regardless whether the gifts are still in existence or not. If the gifts have been damaged, the woman has to pay their values.


    • Our school of thought (Shafi’I School) opines that if there is a breach of betrothal, gifts should be returned whether they still exist or not. If the goods are still in existence, then the goods themselves should be returned. Nevertheless, if the goods have been consumed or used or lost, then the value of the gifts should be returned. 


    • From the above, we could observe that there is a juristic opinion which takes into account the gender of the defaulting party as a determining factor with regards to the liability in the case of breach of betrothal. Whereas, another juristic opinion views that the return of gifts/goods is only required if they are still intact. 


    • Moving on to the law and practice in Malaysia, since Puan Nur is from Bangsar Utama, which means within the province of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, thus by virtue of Section 4 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 (thereafter shall be referred in short as “IFLA”) which states, “Save as is otherwise expressly provided, this Act shall apply to all Muslims living in the Federal Territory and to all Muslims resident in the Federal Territory who are living outside the Federal Territory the provisions under IFLA which govern betrothal-related matters would be applicable on Puan Nur.


    • Section 15 of the IFLA provides that:

    If any person has, either orally or in writing, and either personally or through an intermediary, entered into a betrothal in accordance with Hukum Syara’, and subsequently refuses without lawful reason to marry the other party, the other party being willing to marry, the party in default shall be liable to return the betrothal gifts, if any, or the value thereof and to pay whatever moneys have been expended in good faith by or for the other party in preparation for the marriage, and the same may be recovered by action in the Court.

    • Thus, from the above provision, the essential points that can be deduced are:
      • There must be an oral or written betrothal agreement or covenant
      • The agreement is entered into by the parties personally or through an intermediary
      • There is a breach of such an agreement by one party without lawful reason’
      • The defaulting party shall be liable to return the betrothal gifts if they are still in existent, if not, the value of the gifts must be compensated
      • The defaulting party must also pay whatever expenditures that have been spent in preparation for the marriage (that has to be tendered to Court)
      • Such gifts and expenses may be recovered by bringing an action in the Syariah Court


    • In the prominent case from the State of Kedah cited as Aishah v Jamaluddin (1978) 3 JH 104, the male party who had breached the engagement was ordered by the Court to pay compensation as agreed by the parties in the betrothal agreement which amounted to a sum of RM 24 for mas kahwin, RM 800 for marriage expenses, RM 25 for clothes, RM 400 for house repair in preparation for the wedding, and also the ring that was given by the man to the woman was allowed by the Court to be kept by the woman.


    • Based on the aforementioned case and provision from the statute, rest assured, after assessing the facts of your case that you have relayed, since the party in breach is your ex-fiancée, if you could prove to the Court that your ex-fiancée had broken off the engagement without lawful reason (“sebab yang sah”), you are likely would be able to recover the expenditures that you have spent in preparation for the marriage (provided that all the expenditures can be proved by way of receipts and/other documentary evidence).



    • With regards to the above issue, the case of Salbiah Binti Othman lwn. Haji Ahmad Bin Abdul Ghani is relevant to be regarded as a reference. In this case, the Plaintiff, Puan Salbiah binti Othman and the Defendant, Tuan Haji Ahmad bin Abdul Ghani were engaged on 28th July 2001 and the date of marriage had been set and decided to be held on 31st August 2001. Unfortunately, the Defendant had breached the engagement through his representative on 17th August 2001. Due to the breach and the cancellation of the engagement, the Plaintiff had sought from the Court damages due to humiliation amounting to RM 200,000 and compensation for the expenses amounting to RM 9677.00.


    • In respect of the first claim, the honourable Court decided that such claim is not within the jurisdiction of the Syariah Court and the most suitable place for such a claim to be brought to, would be the Civil High Court (Civil Claim), as this matter is concerning general damages due to humiliation/embarrassment. 


    • Hence, referring to the above case, since a claim for damages due to humiliation is a tortuous claim that is clearly not within the jurisdiction of the Syariah Court, I would advise Puan Nur to bring that particular claim to the Civil High Court instead of to the Syariah Court, as the latter does not have the jurisdiction to try such a claim. 



    • In conclusion, having studied the facts of your case, I believe that Puan Nur would be able to seek for compensation for all the expenses that have been incurred by yourself and your family in preparation for the marriage if you would be able to prove that your ex-fiancée had breached the engagement due to unlawful reason. The learned Judge would determine the exact costs to be borne by the defaulting party due to the breach of engagement. Nevertheless, as what have been explained in the foregoing paragraphs, the claim for damages due to humiliation is not a claim to be brought and sought before the Syariah Court. The alternative would be for Puan Nur to bring such a claim to the Civil High Court.  It is advisable for Puan Nur to consult and seek assistance of a Syarie lawyer as this issue involves complicated matters revolving around the law and hukum syarak which are best dealt by the expert in this respective field. Wallahu a’lam. Thank you.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan

  • tuntutan harta sepencarian: bekas isteri dan anak-anak dihalau keluar rumah


    SOALAN: Assalamualaikum W.B.T.  Saya ada beberapa persoalan yang ingin diajukan kepada Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan Associates mengenai harta sepencarian. Saya dan bekas suami telah berkahwin pada 5 julai 1986 dan bercerai pada 6 ogos 2016. Kami telah dikurniakan dua orang cahaya mata. Semasa dalam tempoh perkahwinan, kami berdua mempunyai sebuah rumah teres di Kajang. Rumah tersebut dibeli pada tahun 1994 selepas lapan tahun perkahwinan. Namun setelah kami bercerai, suami menghalau  saya dan anak-anak supaya keluar dari rumah tersebut atas alasan saya tidak mempunyai hak ke atas rumah tersebut memandangkan penama atas tersebut atas nama bekas suami. Jadi persoalan saya disini, adakah saya boleh menuntut di Mahkamah Syariah supaya rumah tersebut dijadikan sebagai harta sepencarian walaupun saya tidak ada mengeluarkan wang dalam proses pembelian rumah tersebut? Dan berapakah kadar yang selayaknya saya terima? Mohon penjelasan. (Malika, Bangi Selangor)



    1) Terima kasih Puan Malika atas soalan yang telah diajukan tersebut. Jadi, melihat kepada permasalahan puan diatas, apa yang dapat saya simpulkan disini ialah  terdapat beberapa isu yang boleh  diketengahkan:

    • Sama ada harta yang dituntut merupakan harta sepencarian atau tidak
    • Sama ada wujud sumbangan pihak-pihak bagi memperolehi harta tersebut dan kadar yang harus dibahagikan kepada pihak-pihak

    Jadi, saya akan cuba menjawab satu-persatu berkenaan isu di atas.




    2) Perkara ini boleh dirujuk mengikut seksyen 2 Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam Selangor 2003 berkenaan dengan tafsiran harta sepencarian:

    “Harta sepencarian” ertinya harta yang diperoleh oleh suami dan isteri semasa  perkahwinan berkuatkuasa mengikut syarat-yarat yang ditentukan oleh Hukum Syarak;

    3) Malah perkara ini juga telah dinyatakan secara jelas di dalam Enakmen yang sama seksyen 122(1) yang memperuntukkan:

    Mahkamah hendaklah mempunyai kuasa apabila membenarkan lafaz talaq atau apabila membuat suatu perintah penceraian untuk memerintahkan supaya apa-apa yang diperoleh oleh pihak-pihak sewaktu perkahwinan dengan usaha bersama mereka dibahagikan antara mereka atau supaya mana-mana aset itu dijual dan hasil jualan itu dibahagikan antara pihak-pihak.

    4) Di dalam Al-quran berdasarkan firman Allah di dalam surah An-Nisa’ ayat 32 ada menyebut:

    “Dan janganlah kamu iri hati terhadap apa yang telah dikurniakan Allah kepada sebahagian kamu lebih banyak daripada sebahagian yang lain kerana bagi lelaki ada bahagian dari apa yang diusahakannya dan Bagi perempuan pula ada bahagian dari apa yang mereka usahakan dan mohonlah kepada Allah sebahagian daripada kurnianya Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui segala sesuatu”

    Berdasarkan kepada nas Al-Quran di atas jelas menyatakan bahawa perempuan (isteri) mempunyai hak ke atas apa yang diusahakan termasuk juga dalam apa-apa usaha yang mendorong suami berjaya dalam kehidupan seharian sehingga suami berjaya memiliki harta harta tersebut. Usaha ini dikenali sebagai “sumbangan tidak langsung”. Usaha ini secara tidak langsung mendapat pengiktirafan dan ianya dijadikan asas di dalam harta sepencarian kerana peranan isteri dalam urusan rumah tangga adalah usaha yang diiktiraf oleh Hukum Syarak.


    5) Manakala dari sudut hukum adat pula, walaupun perkataan Harta Sepencarian ini tidak dinyatakan secara khusus oleh syarak, namun ianya merupakan adat melayu yang telah diterima pakai dan mendatangkan kebaikan kepada kaum wanita. Oleh yang demikian tuntutan harta sepencarian di Malaysia adalah berdasarkan kepada adat atau ‘uruf. Sesuatu perkara yang menjadi adat atau ‘uruf yang tidak bertentangan dengan hukum syarak serta menjadi kebiasaan amalan, maka ia layak diiktiraf dari sudut undang-undang.


    6) Dalam hal ini, bagi menentukan sama ada harta tersebut adalah harta sepencarian atau tidak, maka mahkamah akan melihat kepada tempoh masa harta tersebut diperolehi dan sama ada wujud atau tidak sumbangan kedua-dua pihak sama ada secara langsung atau tidak langsung bagi memperolehi harta tersebut.


    7) Pihak yang ingin menuntut perlulah membuktikan kepada mahkamah bahawa harta sepencarian tersebut sama ada harta alih (seperti wang simpanan dan kereta) atau harta tak alih (seperti rumah atau hartanah) telah diperoleh dalam tempoh perkahwinan. Seandainya harta yang dikumpul itu berlaku selepas penceraian, maka tidaklah dianggap sebagai harta sepencarian.


    8) Seorang suami tidak boleh menentukan hak ke atas harta yang bukan mutlak walau namanya tertera sebagai pemilik. Setiap harta yang dibeli walau hanya atas nama suami, ia boleh dituntut sebagai harta sepencarian apabila isteri turut menyumbang. Sumbangan yang dimaksudkan bukan sekadar wang ringgit tetapi tenaga, dorongan dan sokongan yang diberi sehingga membolehkan harta tersebut dikumpul.


    9) Jadi, berikutan dengan permasalahan Puan Malika ini, seandainya dapat dibuktikan bahawa rumah teres tersebut telah diperolehi bersama sewaktu dalam perkahwinan sama ada bukti melalui dokumen-dokumen ataupun saksi-saksi maka saya percaya puan juga berhak ke atas rumah tersebut dan ia boleh dituntut sebagai harta sepencarian. Dalam  hal ini, mahkamah akan melihat kepada faktor-faktor tertentu seperti sumbangan pihak-pihak bagi memperolehi harta tersebut dan kadar yang harus dibahagikan. Maka perkara ini akan dijelaskan pada isu yang kedua.




    10) Perlulah dijelaskan  disini, sebelum Mahkamah menetapkan kadar yang perlu dibahagikan kepada pihak-pihak, mahkamah akan melihat kepada sumbangan yang diberikan di antara kedua-dua pihak. Ini kerana harta sepencarian merupakan tuntutan yang kadarnya ditentukan berdasarkan kepada sedikit atau banyaknya takat sumbangan yang diberikan.


    11) Sumbangan yang dimaksudkan disini ialah merujuk kepada sumbangan secara langsung dan sumbangan tidak langsung:

    • Sumbangan secara langsung ini merujuk kepada usaha yang diberikan oleh kedua-dua pihak untuk memperoleh harta tersebut. Antara seperti sumbangan dari sudut kewangan.
    • Manakala, bagi sumbangan tidak langsung pula kebiasannya merujuk kepada kerja-kerja rumah yang dilaksanakan oleh isteri dalam menguruskan rumah tangga. Ini termasuklah idea, dorongan serta keselesaan yang dikecapi suami sehingga membolehkannya mendapatkan harta tersebut


    12) Sekiranya harta itu merupakan harta usaha bersama, maka faktor-faktor yang akan diambil kira oleh mahkamah termasuklah takat sumbangan tiap-tiap pihak dalam bentuk wang, harta atau kerja bagi memperoleh harta tersebut, hutang-hutang yang telah dibuat bagi manfaat bersama mereka serta keperluan anak-anak yang belum dewasa daripada perkahwinan itu.


    13)  Namun sekiranya harta tersebut merupakan harta tunggal, mahkamah akan melihat kepada sumbangan tidak langsung yang telah dibuat oleh pihak yang tidak memperoleh harta itu. Sebagai contoh melakukan kebajikan keluarga seperti memelihara rumah tangga, memenuhi keperluan anak-anak dan sebagainya.


    14) Berkenaan dengan kadar pembahagian harta pula, ianya boleh dikategorikan kepada tiga bahagian iaitu:

    1. Pembahagian sepertiga atau kurang kepada isteri: Pembahagian satu pertiga kepada pihak isteri dan dua pertiga kepada pihak suami akan terpakai apabila si isteri tidak memberi sumbangan kewangan dan hanya memberi sumbangan dalam bentuk menemani suami dan menjaga rumahtangga dan keluarga.
    2. Pembahagian sama rata: Berlaku sekiranya isteri juga memberi sumbangan kewangan, atau harta itu telah didaftarkan dalam kedua-dua nama suami isteri, pada amnya pembahagian akan diberi sama rata di antara suami isteri.
    3. Pembahagian melebihi separuh (1/2)  kepada isteri: Isteri yang menunjukkan bahawa dia memberi lebih sumbangan daripada suami, misalnya dengan memberi sumbangan kewangan dan juga menjaga rumahtangga, patutlah diberi bahagian yang lebih daripada separuh harta sepencarian itu.




    15) Maka apa yang boleh saya simpulkan disini ialah saya percaya Puan Malika berhak untuk menuntut rumah tersebut sebagai harta sepencarian. Ini berdasarkan kepada sumbangan tidak langsung yang telah puan berikan sepanjang mendirikan rumah tangga meskipun bukan sumbangan dalam bentuk kewangan. Saya menasihati puan agar mendapatkan khidmat peguam syarie kes puan dapat berjalan dengan lancar memandangkan mereka lebih berpengalaman dalam mengendalikan kes-kes sebegini. Sekian.


    Disediakan oleh: Nur Syairah Yusop untuk Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan & Associates




    Soalan: Saya ingin mengajukan soalan berkaitan HUDUD kepada Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. Sesetengah pihak menyatakan undang-undang Islam (HUDUD) dibuat hanyalah untuk menghukum dan menakutkan semata-mata. Selain itu, hukuman tersebut juga tiada sifat kemanusiaan. Adakah ia menepati dhawabit maqasid syariah?




    Terima kasih Ani kerana atas soalan yang diberikan. Pertama sekali, Hudud bukanlah undang-undang yang dibuat untuk menakut-nakutkan manusia. Perlu difahami bahawa konsep undang-undang Hudud ini disyariatkan adalah untuk mendidik orang Islam khususnya dan orang bukan muslim amnya. Ini kerana untuk melaksanakan hudud itu sendiri bukanlah suatu yang mudah. Dalam sesuatu kes Hudud, ia memerlukan kepada kesaksian dan pembuktian yang ketat dan jelas. Jika terdapat keraguan walaupun sedikit maka pesalah tersebut tidak boleh dihukum dengan hukuman Hudud sepertimana sabda Rasulullah saw menyebut :

    ” Lebih baik melepaskan orang yang bersalah daripada menghukum orang yang tidak bersalah “


    Dengan kepayahan dan kesukaran untuk melaksanakan Hudud ini jelas menyifatkan bahawa undang-undang ini tidaklah sekejam seperti yang didakwa oleh sesetengah pihak malah sebaliknya telah pun mengambil kira unsur kemanusian bukan setakat kesan ke atas pesalah tersebut bahkan kepada umat Islam seluruhnya. Hikmah Allah swt mensyariatkan syariat ini bukanlah semata untuk menghukum tetapi untuk perkara yang lebih besar iaitu melindungi kehidupan manusia dari jenayah-jenayah yang akan memberi kesan kepada 5 perkara yang digariskan dalam maqasid syariah khususnya.


    Oleh itu pada pandangan peribadi saya, pihak yang menghalang perlaksanaan hudud itulah yang sebenarnya tidak berperikemanusiaan. Kerana apa? Kerana mereka tidak membenarkan ketenteraman dan keharmonian berlaku dalam kehidupan manusia.


    Seperti yang kita semua tahu bahawa Hudud ini adalah hak Allah dan manusia juga adalah hak Allah. Jika sekiranya seseorang manusia itu melakukan perkara yang bertentangan dengan kehendak Allah swt maka bagi pandangan peribadi saya, tidak menjadi salah jika Allah swt mengambil kembali nikmat yang diberikan kepada manusia tersebut seperti tangan ( yang dipotong bagi kesalahan mencuri/merompak ) dan seumpamanya. Namun begitu, hukuman ini terhad hanya kepada orang Islam sahaja atas asas keimanan yang mengakui bahawa Allah itu wujud.


    Seterusnya dari segi maqasid syariah, ya sememangnya Hudud menepati dhawabitnya. Dalam maqasid syariah, terdapat 5 perkara yang perlu dijaga iaitu akal, keturunan, harta, agama dan nyawa. Melihat kepada jenayah hudud itu sendiri iaitu meminum arak, berzina, mencuri, murtad dan membunuh, dengan adanya had hukuman bagi kesalahan-kesalahan tersebut sekali gus dapat memelihara kelima-lima perkara dalam maqasid syariah.


    Hukuman ini sering dianggap kejam dan tidak berprikemanusiaan sepertimana yang didakwa oleh sesetengah pihak. Kerana apa? kerana undang-undang ini datangnya dari Islam. Cuba bayangkan kalau hukuman ini adalah hukuman sivil atau dari pihak barat? Nescaya seluruh masyarakat di Malaysia khususnya atau dunia umumnya akan menerima hukuman-hukuman ini meskipun terpaksa. Apa yang pasti hukuman ini adalah jauh lebih baik dan bertimbang rasa berbanding hukuman barat seperti kerusi elektrik, gantung sampai mati, dan lain-lain. Secara mudah, perbandingan boleh dibuat terhadap hukuman sebat sivil dan syariah yang dilaksanakan di penjara pada hari ini.



    Artikel disediakan untuk Firma Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan & Associates.

  • peguam syarie faiz adnan hadhanah


    Soalan :

    Saya ingin mengajukan soalan kepada Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan berkaitan hadhanah. Saya Fatimah (bukan nama sebenar) dan suami telah berkahwin pada 23/2/2011. Hasil perkahwinan kami telahpun dikurniakan 2 orang anak iaitu Rania Aisya berumur 4 tahun dan Aqif Adli 2 tahun. Namun, pada suatu petang saya bergaduh besar dengan bekas suami saya sehingga saya meminta dia menceraikan saya dan berjanji untuk memberi anak-anak kepada dia jika dia (suami) menceraikan saya. Kami kemudian telah sah bercerai pada tahun 2017. Anak-anak saya sehingga sekarang berada dengan bekas suami saya. Tapi sekarang saya telah berkahwin baru dan saya benar-benar merindui anak-anak saya dan menyesal atas perbuatan saya. Saya juga berhasrat untuk mengambil anak-anak saya duduk dan tinggal dengan saya. Adakah saya masih mempunyai hak hadhanah  di sisi undang-undang terhadap kedua anak tersebut? Saya benar-benar menginginkannya. Saya mohon nasihat tuan.




    Hadhanah. Menurut seksyen 76 Akta Undang-undang Keluarga Islam Wilayah Persekutuan 1984, undang-undang membenarkan suatu perintah hak jagaan anak itu diubah atas alasan yang munasabah. Berdasarkan peruntukan ini, jelas Puan masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan semula hak jagaan anak tersebut. Oleh itu, tindakan awal yang perlu Puan ambil ialah failkan permohonan ubah perintah hak jagaan anak yang telah diputuskan oleh mahkamah sebelum ini. Seterusnya, dalam permohonan tersebut, Puan perlu nyatakan alasan mengapa permohonan tersebut perlu diubah. Amnya, alasan-alasan yang biasa diberikan ialah telah wujud salah penyataan; atau telah wujud kesilapan fakta; atau telah berlaku perubahan matan tentang hal keadaan berdasarkan perjanjian yang telah dibuat. Disamping itu dalam memutuskan kes ini, Mahkamah juga mengambil kira tiga perkara berikut :

    ·  Kebajikan anak-anak puan

    ·  Umur anak-anak puan ketika hak hadhanah ini dipohon di mahkamah

    ·  Kelayakan puan dalam mendapatkan hak hadhanah


    Sebelum menentukan kepada siapa hak hadhanah ini diberikan, perkara utama yang dinilai dan diberi perhatian lebih oleh Mahkamah ialah kebajikan anak. Dalam Kitab Al-Fiqh Al Muqarran Lil Al-Ehwal Shaksiyyah Oleh Sr. Badran Abul Ainnaini Juz 1 Ms 543-544 menyebut :


    غاية لامر أن حق الصغير اقوى لان مصلحته مقدمة على مصلحة ابويه وانه يجب العمل بما هو انفغ واصلح للصغير في باب الخضانة


    Dari segi kebajikan, Mahkamah menfokuskan kepada 5 perkara asas iaitu makan minum, pakaian, pendidikan, perubatan dan tempat tinggal. Kelima-lima perkara asas ini secara tidak langsung berkait rapat dengan isu kemampuan. Oleh itu, Puan perlu buktikan kepada Mahkamah bahawa Puan mampu menyediakan dan menjaga keperluan anak tersebut dengan baik. Soal bagaimana mengagihkan tanggungjawab menyediakan nafkah anak, ia bergantung kepada persetujuan bersama atau perintah nafkah anak yang dikeluarkan oleh Mahkamah.

    Kedua, jika dilihat pada umur anak puan pada waktu ini adalah masing-masing berumur 4 tahun (anak perempuan) dan 2 tahun (anak lelaki), menurut undang-undang, ibu adalah orang yang paling berhak mendapat hak hadhanah inisehinggalah anak-anak tersebut mencapai umur mumayyiz meskipun anak-anak tersebut diberikan pada suami Puan pada awal penceraian. Berdasarkan petikan daripada kitab kifayah al-Akhyarjuz. 2 ms 161 yang menyatakan:


    وإذا فارق الرجل زوجته وله منها ولد فهي احق بخضانته الى سبع سنين


    Maksudnya: Apabila berlakunya perpisahan di antara suami dan isteri dan mereka mempunyai anak hasil perkahwinan tersebut, maka ibu adalah orang yang berhak menjaga anak itu sehingga berumur 7 tahun.

    a)      Berkahwin dengan orang yang tidak mahram dengan anak-anaknya

    b)      Berkelakuan buruk secara keterlaluan dan terbuka

    c)      Menukar permaustatinan dengan tujuan menghalang bapa anak-anak tersebut menjalankan pengawasanya

    d)      Murtad

    e)      Menganiaya dan mengabaikan anak-anak


    Namun, puan haruslah mengetahui bahawa hak hadhanah boleh hilang apabila didapati orang itu termasuk dalam kategori gugur hak atau hilang kelayakan sebagai seorang hadhinah (penjaga) kepada anak-anak tersebut. Dan kesannya ialah hak hadhanah daripada ibu (puan) boleh berpindah kepada orang lain seperti (suami puan) dan sesiapa yang difikirkan layak menurut Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam seksyen 84 akta yang sama. Hal ini menurut seksyen 83 AUKIWP  1984: Hak sesorang perempuan terhadap hadhanah adalah hilang;-

    Berdasarkan fakta kes ini, puan telah pun berkahwin lain dan menyebabkan hak hadhanah puan terhadap anak-anak tersebut gugur. Hal ini dirujuk berdasarkan hadith Rasulullah SAW:


    انت احق بها ما لم تنكحى


    Maksudnya : Engkau berhak kepada hadhanah selama mana kamu tidak berkahwin lain.

    Meskipun Puan telah mendapat keredhan dan keizinan suami untuk menjaga anak-anak tersebut namun sedikit sebanyak kebajikan anak-anak tersebut mungkin akan terjejas. Dalam kitab al-Akhyar Juz. 2 ms 153 menyatakan:


    لأنها مشغولة بالزوج فيضرر الولد اثر لرضا الزوج


    Maksudnya: … isteri biasanya sibuk melayani suaminya dan sudah tentu menjejaskan kedudukan anak itu meskipun ada keredhaan suaminya untuk jaga sama tapi ianya tak beerti.

    Ayat ini berkaitan hukum syarak yang menetapkan bahawa hilang kelayakan isteri yang telah berkahwin lain walaupun dengan redha suaminya dalam menuntut hadhanah. Islam merupakan agama yang mementingkan seorang isteri itu memelihara hubungan dengan suaminya selama-lamanya. Juga, menolak kemudaratan terjadinya apa-apa perkara yang tidak diingini pada anak-anak yang bakal dijaga lebih-lebih lagi melibatkan anak perempuan yang bukan mahram dengan suami yang baru. Tambahan pula,  faktor lambakan kes-kes berkaitan bapa haruan, bapa yang menganiaya anak tiri sehingga trauma apabila isteri tiada di rumah dan bekerja yang kemudian tugas menjaga anak tersebut beralih kepada bapa tiri.

    Namun, masih wujud ruang dan peluang untuk puan mendapatkan hak hadhanah ini daripada bekas suami puan dengan dengan memohon ibu puan (nenek) sebagai hadhinah (penjaga) kepada anak-anak puan di mahkamah kerana menurut seksyen 81 AUKIWP 1984, susunan orang yang berhak dalam menjaga anak-anak selepas ibu adalah nenek dan puan haruslah membuktikan kepada mahkamah bahawa ibu puan sememangnya layak untuk menjaga kebajikan bagi anak-anak puan dan membuktikan bahawa bekas suami puan telah tidak menjalankan kebajikan anak-anak puan dengan baik.

    Dalam isu hadhanah ini, mahkamah akan melihat segala faktor secara menyeluruh, terutama kebajikan dan kemaslahatan anak, bukan melihat kepada kepentingan si ibu atau si bapa. Kebajikan anak adalah yang paling utama mengikut maqasid syariahbagi menjamin kehidupan masa depan yang lebih baik bagi anak itu. Contoh kes diihat pada kes Norhaiza lwn saat (1996) di mana mahkamah menolak tuntutan isteri yang telah berkahwin lain dalam tuntutan mengubah perintah mahkamah berkaitan hadhanah pada bekas suaminya.


    Artikel disiarkan untuk laman web Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan Associates.

  • suami-nafsu-kuat


    Soalan: Saya Farah (bukan nama sebenar) merupakan suri rumahtangga sepenuh masa. Saya mempunyai 3 orang anak. Perkahwinan saya dan suami telah mencecah 5 tahun. Suami saya seorang yang sangat kuat nafsu syahwatnya – suami nafsu kuat. Sejak dari awal perkahwinan lagi suami saya tak kira pagi, petang atau malam beliau sering minta bersama sampai saya tak larat melayani dia. Telah beberapa kali saya cuba tolak pelawaan tapi suami paksa saya bersama. Akibat daripada kekerapan melakukan hubungan kelamin, saya telah mengalami pendarahan pada alat sulit dan kerap rasa sakit-sakit. Bila saya mengadu, suami tidak mengendahkan dan langsung tidak pernah bawa saya ke klinik untuk pemeriksaan. Saya hanya bergantung pada ubat tahan sakit saja. Dalam keadaan saya begitu pun, suami tetap dengan sikapnya. Saya betul-betul rasa tertekan dengan masalah ini. Hanya mengenangkan anak-anak sahaja saya masih bertahan dan bersabar sehingga sekarang. Saya pernah menyuarakan masalah ini padanya namun apa yang berlaku, suami saya marah dan tengking saya. Dia mengatakan saya wajib patuh sebab itu arahan daripadanya sebagai suami. Suami juga kadang-kadang sanggup tak pergi kerja kerana nakkan bersama. Dia juga sering bertukar kerja kerana masalah kehadiran dan komitmen.

    suami-nafsu-kuat-2Dari segi duit pula, tanggungan tidak sepenuhnya dari pendapatan suami sebab gaji suami kecil dan kadang-kadang tak ada gaji (dalam tempoh tak bekerja). Hampir kesemua tanggungan tersebut adalah dari saya sendiri. Sebelum saya berkahwin dengan suami, saya mempunyai pekerjaan tetap dengan gaji yang lumayan. Saya telah mempunyai kereta, rumah, duit simpanan dan barang-barang kemas. Namun, semua harta-harta tersebut dicagar oleh suami satu demi satu dan digunakan untuk tampung keperluan keluarga. Suami berjanji untuk tebusnya kembali tapi sekarang lain pula jadinya.  Bila saya bertanyakan tentang harta2 tersebut, suami mengamuk dan ugut saya nak bawa lari anak-anak jika saya sebut tentang hal ini lagi dan dia juga cakap yang dia tak akan tebus harta-harta itu sebab duit tak ada. Saya sekarang buat bisnes online. Alhamdulillah sedikit sebanyak ada juga pendapatan. Tapi sedihnya, kad bank saya suami pegang dan dia gunakan wang itu ikut suka hati tanpa minta izin daripada saya terlebih dahulu. Sejujurnya, saya sudah tidak tahan lagi meneruskan perkahwinan ini dan bercadang untuk bercerai. So, apa yang perlu saya lakukan? Apakah hak yang boleh saya tuntut selepas penceraian? Mohon nasihat.


    Jawapan: Terima kasih Puan atas soalan yang diajukan dan saya simpati atas apa yang berlaku atas diri Puan.

    Sebelum saya menerangkan dengan lebih lanjut, harapnya penceraian ini adalah usaha terakhir yang Puan ambil untuk selesaikan konflik rumahtangga Puan dan suami.

    Baiklah, setelah meneliti satu-persatu permasalahan Puan, keadaan dan situasi Puan pada ketika ini adalah diharuskan bercerai mengikut Hukum Syarak berdasarkan 3 sebab berikut:

    1. Telah timbul kemudharatan pada diri Puan akibat dari sikap suami yang terus menerus memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin.
    2. Suami telah dengan sengaja cuai memperuntukkan nafkah zahir kepada Puan.
    3. Suami telah dengan sengaja melupuskan harta Puan.

    Bagi proses penceraian, memandangkan Puan dan suami masih tinggal sebumbung maka langkah awal yang sebaiknya dibuat ialah Puan berbincang tentang penceraian ini dengan suami terlebih dahulu. Jika suami bersetuju untuk menceraikan Puan, maka Puan boleh menfailkan permohonan cerai di bawah seksyen 47 Akta/Enakmen Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam. Prosiding penceraian di bawah seksyen ini lebih mudah kerana ia tidak memerlukan kepada pembuktian atau perbicaraan jika pihak-pihak telah bersetuju untuk berpisah. Selain itu, segala aib pasangan juga tidak dibuka. Dari segi Hukum Syarak, tindakan ini sangat dituntut dalam Islam berdasarkan surah al-Baqarah ayat 229, Allah s.w.t berfirman:


    فإمساك بمعروف أو تسريح بإحسان

    Maksud: “Setelah itu suami dapat menahannya dengan cara yang baik dan melepaskan dengan baik.”


    Manakala jika berlaku sebaliknya yakni keadaan di mana suami Puan tidak menerima atau tidak mahu hadir prosiding penceraian, maka Puan boleh menfailkan tuntutan fasakh di bawah seksyen 53 Akta/Enakmen yang sama. Ini kerana sebab-sebab penceraian Puan seperti yang disebutkan di atas juga ada diperuntukan di bawah seksyen 53.

    Dalam permohonan fasakh, Puan perlu nyatakan bersama alasan-alasan fasakh yang berkaitan seperti berikut:

    (1) suami telah lazim menyakiti dan menjadikan kehidupan Puan menderita disebabkan oleh kelakuan aniayanya,

    (2)  suami telah melupuskan harta Puan dan

    (3)  suami telah cuai mengadakan peruntukan bagi nafkah selama 3 bulan berturut-turut.

    Setiap alasan-alasan yang dikemukakan dalam permohonan fasakh perlu dibuktikan wujud. Kegagalan Puan mengemukakan bukti atau saksi bagi menyokong alasan tersebut boleh menyebabkan tuntutan/permohonan fasakh Puan ditolak.

    Dalam kes fasakh, perkara yang paling penting ialah pembuktian. Saya bantu Puan dalam hal ini. Berdasarkan kepada alasan yang pertama, “suami telah lazim menyakiti dan ……” adalah merujuk kepada tindakan suami yang kerap memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin sehingga menyebabkan pendarahan pada alat sulit Puan. Hal keadaan ini dikuatkan lagi dengan kelakuan aniaya suami Puan yang langsung tidak mengendahkan kesakitan yang Puan alami dan berterusan memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin. Akibat daripada sikap suami, Puan mengalami pendarahan dan tekanan perasan. Bagi membuktikan perkara ini, Puan perlu sediakan laporan perubatan. Laporan perubatan disini merujuk kepada laporan doktor berkenaan dengan pendarahan pada alat sulit dan juga laporan pakar psikiatri yang mengesahkan bahawa Puan sememangnya mengalami tekanan perasaan.

    Seterusnya bagi alasan yang kedua, kecuaian suami memperuntukan nafkah adalah merujuk kepada situasi dimana suami tidak sepenuhnya menanggung keperluan keluarga malah sebaliknya telah menggunakan wang simpanan dan harta Puan untuk tujuan tersebut. Ini berlaku kerana suami tidak mempunyai gaji yang tetap ekoran dari masalah bertukar-tukar tempat kerja. Dalam perkara ini, Puan boleh mengemukakan saksi iaitu bekas majikan suami Puan bagi menerangkan tentang sikap dan komitmen suami sebagai pekerja. Selain itu, jiran juga boleh dibawa menjadi saksi sekiranya jiran tersebut kerap melihat kelibat suami di rumah dan mengetahui bahawa suami  tidak  bekerja. Pendek cerita, segala dokumen yang berkaitan yang Puan rasa ianya menyokong alasan tersebut boleh dikemukakan di Mahkamah.

    Bagi alasan yang terakhir iaitu suami telah dengan sengaja melupuskan harta Puan. Difahamkan bahawa suami dalam kes ini telah mungkir janji untuk menebus kembali harta-harta yang telah dicagar tambahan turut mengugut Puan untuk membawa lari anak sekiranya hal ini diungkit lagi. Baik, bagi masalah ini Puan perlu sediakan dokumen2 yang berkaitan dengan transaksi cagaran. Jika transaksi tersebut dibuat secara lisan, sebaiknya minta kerjasama orang yang menerima cagaran itu untuk beri keterangan di Mahkamah bagi mengesahkan kewujudan transaksi tersebut. Selain itu, dokumen harta dan rekod wang simpanan Puan juga perlu dikemukakan untuk menunjukkan harta-harta tersebut adalah kepunyaan Puan. Berhubung dengan isu bawa lari anak, saya cadangkan Puan mohon perintah injuksi dari Mahkamah Syariah. Ini penting untuk menghalang suami dari bawa lari anak dan sekiranya berlaku kejadian ini suami Puan boleh ditangkap dan dipenjarakan. Dalam masa yang sama, Puan juga dinasihatkan untuk memohon perintah interim hadhanah. Permohonan ini adalah bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hak jagaan sementara sepanjang tempoh prosiding berjalan.

    Berkenaan dengan hak-hak selepas penceraian, jika Puan becerai secara baik maka hak yang boleh dituntut ialah nafkah iddah, mutaah, harta sepencarian, hadhanah, dam nafkah anak. Dan sekiranya penceraian secara fasakh, semua hak-hak yang disebutkan Puan boleh tuntut kecuali nafkah iddah.

    Saya kira penerangan yang serba ringkas ini dapat memandu Puan untuk tindakan lanjut. Cuma, saya nasihatkan supaya Puan guna khidmat Peguam Syarie supaya kes ini dikendalikan mengikut prosiding undang-undang yang betul dan menepati Hukum Syarak. Sekiranya Puan ingin bertanya dengan lebih lanjut, Puan boleh hubungi kami di 012 667 6200 (Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan) atau pejabat 03-2283 1400/03-2283 3400 atau datang terus ke firma kami di Bangsar Utama. Terima kasih.

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