• li'an

    LI’AN: HUSBANDS, BEWARE!

    LI’AN: INTRODUCTION – In Islam, the relationship between a man and a woman can be legalised by way of a valid marriage solemnisation in accordance with the hukum syara’. With marriage, a household is hoped to be showered with love, affection and harmony between its members. The warmth and tranquillity that are expected to be gained from a husband-wife relationship could be reflected by the verse in the Qur’an which equates a wife as a garment/ clothing for the husband, and vice versa. Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 187:

    هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَهُنَّ ۗ

    Translation by Muhsin Khan:They are Libas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her – as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabari], for you and you are the same for them.”

    Ironically, the reality that we have to swallow about marriage is just like what Sylvester Stallone had said in a film entitled Rocky Balboa that “the world ain’t all sunshine and rainbows. This saying applies similarly in a marriage life. Some marriages survive a long-lasting happiness, whilst some people ended up having a wrecked marriage whereby the marriage eventually dissolves through a divorce. Hence, in this article we would discover a type of oath namely; li’an which could dissolve a marriage solemnisation.

     

    THE DEFINITION OF LI’AN

    Linguistically, li’an derives from the Arabic word; la’ana which means “to curse” or “to condemn” as stated in Kamus Arab-Indonesia Al-Munawwir by Ahmad Wirson Munawwir (1997). Whereas, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam defines it as: mutual repudiation. It is a mutual one in the sense that when a husband accuses his wife of committing adultery (zina) without providing four credible witnesses, by following the instructions laid down in Surah An-Nur, verses 6-7, the wife may then deny the allegation by repudiating in the same manner. The curse (la’nat) takes place at the fifth oath, whereby the wrath of Allah will fall on them if they are lying.

     

    AUTHORITIES FROM THE QUR’AN AND HADITH ON LI’AN

    Li’an is not a new creation of men but has long been recognised and inscribed in the Holy Qur’an.

    In Surah Al-An’am, verse 6-7, Allah says:

    And those who accuse their wives [of adultery] and have no witnesses except themselves – then the witness of one of them [shall be] four testimonies [swearing] by Allah that indeed, he is of the truthful. And the fifth [oath will be] that the curse of Allah be upon him if he should be among the liars.

    And in a hadith reported in Sahih Muslim, it was narrated that:

    Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saying to the invokers of curse: Your account is with Allah. One of you must be a liar. You have now no right over this woman. He said: Messenger of Allah, what about my wealth (dower that I paid her at the time of marriage)? He said: You have no claim to wealth. If you tell the truth, it (dower) is the recompense for your having had the right to intercourse with her, and if you tell a lie against her, it is still more remote from you than she is...”

     

    THE OCCURRENCES OF LI’AN

    Abd al-Fattah Ibrahim in his book entitled Ahkam al-Usrah fi al-Shari’ah al-Islamiah explains that li’an can take place in two occurrences:

    1. When a husband alleges his wife of committing zina (adultery) but could not bring forth four witnesses.
    2. When a husband denies the nasab of the child borne by the wife due to uncertainty in the process of the child delivery.

     

    PILLARS (ARKAN) AND CONDITIONS OF LI’AN

    Meanwhile, Basri Ibrahim in his book called Pemantapan Sistem Kekeluargaan, page 209, lists out the pillars of li’an into four, namely:

    1. The one who pronounces the li’an (the husband):
      The husband must be the legitimate husband of the wife who has been pronounced li’an upon, and the husband must be of sound mind.
    2. The person who has been pronounced li’an upon (the wife):
      The wife must be the legitimate wife of the husband (who pronounces the li’an) and of sound mind.
    3. The cause (sabab) of li’an:
      The cause of li’an as discussed above is either due to the denial of nasab of the child borne by the wife or accusing/alleging a wife of committing zina.
    4. The pronouncement (lafaz) of li’an:
      The pronouncement of li’an must be in the correct order/sequence. The majority of the scholars (ulama’) are of the view that li’an would be valid if pronounced in the Arabic language or even in other languages. Nevertheless, according to the Hanbali madzhab, any husband and wife who can speak Arabic should pronounce li’an in Arabic as illustrated in the Qur’an.

     

    THE CONDITIONS OF LI’AN

    On the other hand, the conditions of li’an as highlighted by Jabatan Kehakiman Syariah Negeri Kelantan on its online portal are:

    1. The qazaf (the allegation of adultery by the husband towards the wife) must precede the li’an.
    2. The li’an of the husband is followed by the li’an of the wife.
    3. Both of the husband and wife must pronounce the words of li’an.  This is because the pronouncement of li’an is elucidated clearly in the Qur’an and must be pronounced accordingly.
    4. All the five oaths/swears of li’an must be pronounced successively, one after another (mu’allat). 
    5. The Judge must advice the parties not to tell lies whilst pronouncing li’an. 

    According to the above portal, all of the above conditions must be fulfilled for a li’an to be valid.

     

    THE DURATION OF THE DENIAL OF PATERNITY (NASAB)

    Muslim scholars have formed different opinions on the duration of the denial of paternity or in other words, for how long can a husband deny the paternity of the child borne by his wife? In a book entitled Pemantapan Sistem Kekeluargaan written by Basri Ibrahim, the majority of the Muslim scholars (jumhhur fuqaha’) opine that a husband cannot deny his paternity upon a child borne by his wife, after his wife gave birth to/delivered the child.

    On the other hand, according to the writer, the Shafi’i madzhab permits the denial of paternity of a child to be done throughout the wife’s pregnancy until the child is born. Whereas, the scholars of the Hanafi madzhab are of the view that the denial of paternity should be made abruptly as soon as the child is born or during the process of delivery, for the li’an to be valid. In contrast, if the li’an is made after that, the li’an would not be valid. The justification for the view is that the silence of the husband before this connotes that the husband is pleased (redha) with the child. 

    Meanwhile, the Maliki madzhab holds the same view as the Hanafi School, but with two extra conditions attached. Firstly, the husband has not consummated the wife within a period which could cause the wife to be pregnant.  Secondly, the denial of paternity must be done before the birth of the child. If the husband remains silent until the birth of the child, even after one day, the li’an of the husband will not be valid, and the husband will be imposed with a hadd punishment for qazaf due to alleging the wife of committing adultery.

     

    THE CONSEQUENCES OF LI’AN

    Now, we have come to the penultimate part of the discussion on li’an, whereby we would explore the effect(s) of the pronouncement of li’an that both husbands and wives must know before they even think of pronouncing li’an. Wahbah al-Zuhaily in his kitab entitled Al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuh explains the consequences of li’an as follows:

    1. The hadd punishment for qazaf upon the husband will lapse and the same applies to the wife, whereby the hadd punishment for zina would lapse as well once li’an is made by both parties. 
    2.   It is forbidden for the husband and wife to resume conjugal relation even prior to the faraq   (judicial separation) decreed by the Judge.
    3. The parties should be separated (faraq).
    4. Li’an is a type of oath which would prohibit the parties who pronounced it from reconciling the marriage forever (haram mu’abbad).
    5. If the li’an is made to deny the nasab of the child borne by the wife, the husband is not obligated to the wife and the child as there is no link of lineage intertwined between them (the husband and the child).

     

    CONCLUSION

    In conclusion, li’an shows that apart from the pronouncement of talaq, a marriage can be dissolved when a marriage couple pronounce li’an towards each other, provided that all of the conditions and pillars of li’an (as discussed above) are fulfilled. The pronouncement of li’an should not be treated as a jest, as the wrath or curse of Allah would befall upon those who are not being truthful whilst pronouncing li’an. 

    Looking at the Malaysian context particularly in the State of Selangor, li’an is covered under Section 51 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, whereby the provision briefly states the consequences of li’an. The Section reads: 

    Where the parties to a marriage have taken oath by way of li’an according to Hukum Syarak before a Syarie Judge, upon judgment, the Syarie Judge shall order them to be farak and be separated and to live apart forever.

    From the above provision, similar to what have been discussed above, li’an would result in the parties to the marriage to be judicially separated (faraq) forever as li’an causes a marriage to be haram mu’abbad.

    Meanwhile, under Section 36 of the Syariah Criminal Offences (Selangor) Enactment 1995, a man who alleges his wife of committing adultery without bringing forth four witnesses, and refuses to pronounce li’an is said to have committed qazaf, and would be liable for “a fine not exceeding five thousand ringgitor for “imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to both.”

    The punishment for qazaf as prescribed in Surah An-Nur, verse 4 which amounts to 80 lashes can only be duly imposed if the proposal to implement hudud law in Malaysia becomes a success. Wallahu a’lam. 

  • the-validity-of-ruju

    THE VALIDITY OF RUJU’ BY RESUMING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE & THE REFUSAL OF WIFE’S CONSENT TO RECONCILE

    QUESTION REGARDING THE VALIDITY OF RUJU’: I am Harith Shah Aqlan from Kerinchi, Kuala Lumpur. I have a question with regards to the validity of ruju’ that I made to my wife. I have pronounced one talaq outside the Court to my wife on January this year and the Court had validated and confirmed the said talaq. After a month from the date of pronouncement of talaq, I have resumed cohabitation with my wife without expressly uttering the word ruju’. I would like to know whether the said ruju’ is valid, and would the consequence remains the same if my wife refuses to consent to the said ruju’? Wassalam, thank you.

     

    ANSWER:

    Wa’alaikumussalam. Thank you for the questions Mr. Harith. We would try our level best to attend to your queries. It is important to bear in mind that the issue of ruju’ or reconciliation in marriage should not be taken lightly as the misconceptions of it might lead to serious consequences. Before we provide the general concepts of ruju’, it is best for us to firstly determine the underlying issue(s) in this case, which are:

    • Whether resuming cohabitation is a valid ruju’ based on hukum syara’
    • Whether the refusal of consent of the wife to ruju’ affects the validity of ruju’?

    There are several verses in the Holy Qur’an pertaining to ruju’. In Surah At-Talaq, Allah says in verse 2 which goes:

    Then when they are about to fulfil their term appointed, either take them back in a good manner

    In another Surah of the Qur’an, Allah says to the effect:

    الطَّلاَقُ مَرَّتَانِ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ

    Then when they are about to fulfil their term appointed, either take them back in a good manner or part with them in a good manner.”Al-Baqarah: 229

    The wordings in the above two verses which state “when they are about to fulfil their term appointed” signify that ruju’ or reconciliation of marriage is only permitted during the time of ‘iddah.

    According to The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, ‘iddah is defined as “The waiting period a woman must observe after the death of her spouse or a divorce, during which she may not remarry, based on the Quran 2:228 and 2:238 . The waiting period after a divorce is three months, and after the death of a spouse it is four months and ten days. Any pregnancy discovered during this period is assumed to be the responsibility of the former husband.

    And according to Taqiy al-Din Abi Bakr bin Muhammad al-Husayni (2001), ruju’ can only be made upon “a wife who has been consummated, and has been divorced with one or two talaq, without accepting any payment (khulu’) and must be made during the time of ‘iddah”. This is cited in an article entitled Rujuk: Peruntukan Undang-undang dan Pelaksanaannya di Malaysia by Raihanah Abdullah and Zulzaidi Mahmod.

    This means, ruju’ can only be made when a woman is divorced with a talaq raj’i (revocable divorce), whereas, ruju’ cannot be made upon a wife who has been divorced with talaq ba’in (irrevocable divorce) as an irrevocable divorce requires a new ‘aqad (marriage contract). Having understood the general concepts of ruju’, let us proceed with the issues.

     

    WHETHER RESUMING COHABITATION IS A VALID RUJU’ BASED ON HUKUM SYARA’

    In answering this issue, we have to firstly determine the position of the wife when the “ruju’” (resuming cohabitation) was made. Construing the facts of the present case, the “ruju’” was made a month after the wife was divorced with one talaq. This means, the wife was still in her ‘iddah period as an ‘iddah period for a divorced woman is three periods of purity equivalent to approximately three months for a woman with a normal menstrual cycle. A reconciliation is thus can be made as the talaq was a talaq raj’i (revocable divorce) and the wife was still in her ‘iddah period.

    The question is thus, not whether a ruju’ can be made upon the wife, but, whether the so-called “ruju’” which was made by the act of the husband, i.e. resuming cohabitation with the wife, was a valid one. It would be of significance for us to know the rukun (pillars) of ruju’, and whether all the pillars are fulfilled.

    A Kuala Terengganu case of Abdullah Fuad bin Mamat v Maliza bt Awang [2013] 1 SHLR 76 had elucidated about the pillars of ruju’ rather clearly by referring to Kitab Mughni al-Muhtaj, Volume 5, page 2. The three pillars of ruju’ are: “…the husband, the pronouncement used and the wife (former wife in the period of ‘iddah)”.

    The kitab further elaborated on the first pillar of ruju’ by stating: “… the conditions of the husband who wishes to reconcile are the same as the conditions to marry, which are: a person who has attained the age of maturity (baligh), of sound mind, done willfully (not coerced nor under duress), not a murtad…”

    Thus, in order to satisfy the requirements of the first pillar of ruju’, as the husband, you must ensure that all of these conditions are met during the act of reconciliation. 

    Moving on to the second pillar of ruju’ which is the pronouncement used. What is interesting in this present case is that, there is no mention of any form of pronouncement (verbal) of ruju’ being made. Nevertheless, the “ruju’” was made through an act of resuming cohabitation. Therefore, we have to determine whether resuming cohabitation with the divorced wife (talaq raj’i) during her period of ‘iddah, would constitute a valid form of ruju’. 

    The case of Norshinah bte Kamaridun v Baharuddin bin Othman [2005] 4 SHLR 158 would be of good reference as this case also discusses on the validity of ruju’ by way of resuming cohabitation. This case referred to Kitab Mughni Muhtaj, Volume 5, at page 6, which states: “There would be no ruju’ by way of sexual intercourse.” Nevertheless, there are actually differences of opinions of the four madhahib with regards to this matter.

    According to Raihanah Abdullah and Zulzaidi Mahmod (2010) in their article entitled Rujuk: Peruntukan Undang-undang dan Pelaksanaannya di Malaysia, the Shafi’i madzhab only acknowledges a reconciliation (ruju’) by way of pronouncement (verbal) and does not ratify reconciliation by way of conduct, and that would include reconciliation by resuming cohabitation.

    On the other hand, the writers continued to write that some of the Hanbali, Maliki and Hanafi sects accede to reconciliation by way of conduct. Meanwhile, Kitab Hashiah I’anat al-Talibun, Volume 4, page 34 states that Imam Abu Hanifah opines that sexual intercourse as an invalid form of reconciliation of marriage. This is quoted in the aforementioned case of Norshinah bte Kamaridun v Baharuddin bin Othman [2005] 4 SHLR 158.

    The question here is therefore, what is the position here in Malaysia, considering that the official madzhab of our country is the Shafi’i madzhab as emphasised by the then Director-General of JAKIM; Dato’ Haji Othman Mustapha in an article on JAKIM’s website in 2014. The definition of hukum syara’ needs to firstly be clarified. Since the inquirer resides in Kuala Lumpur, the interpretation section of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 may be cross –referred. 

    Section 2 of the Act defines hukum syara’ as “Islamic Law according to any recognized Mazhab”. From this definition, it can simply be understood that the opinions of all the four major madzhab would be acceptable. Nevertheless, based on the case of Norshinah bte Kamaridun v Baharuddin bin Othman [2005] 4 SHLR 158 and the case of Norhasnizar bt Yusoff v Sazli bin Yeop [2009] 2 SHLR 185, the approach of the Courts has been to follow the opinion of the Shafi’i sect, first. Only if the opinion of the Shafi’i madzhab runs in contrary with the public policy would the opinions of other sects be referred to.

    Thus, applying the Shafi’i madzhab, reconciliation of marriage by way of resuming cohabitation with the divorced wife would not constitute a valid ruju’, regardless if the conjugal relation is accompanied with intention (niyyah) or not. This is in line with the decision by the then Syariah Subordinate Chief Judge; Tuan Mawardi Che Man in Norhasnizars case mentioned above.

     

    WHETHER THE REFUSAL OF CONSENT OF THE WIFE TO RUJU’ AFFECTS THE VALIDITY OF RUJU’

    As discussed in the foregoing paragraphs, the pillars of ruju’ do not include the consent of the wife i.e. the person with whom the husband wishes to reconcile with. The issue of refusal of consent of the wife in the context of ruju’ has been discussed in the case of Abdullah Fuad bin Mamat v Maliza bt Awang [2013] 1 SHLR 76. 68]. In this case, the Court had referred to Kitab al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Dr Wahbah al-Zuhaili which states that the consent of the wife is not required to reconcile.

    Despite that, in order to provide remedy for a wife who refuses to consent upon the ruju’ with valid reasons according to hukum syara’, the drafters of the legislation have foreseen such an event by providing Section 51(9) in the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 which states: “If after a revocable divorce the husband pronounces a ruju’ but the wife has not consented to the ruju’ for reasons allowed by Hukum Syara’, she shall not be ordered by the Court to resume conjugal relations, but the Court shall appoint a conciliatory committee as provided under section 47 and that section shall apply accordingly.

     

    CONCLUSION:

    In conclusion, with regards to the first issue, despite the “reconciliation” by way of resuming cohabitation was made during the period of ‘iddah, the “ruju’ would not be a valid one. This is in lieu of the Malaysian Syariah Courts’ inclination to follow the Shafi’i madzhab regarding this matter, whereby the Shafi’i madzhab does not accede to ruju’ by way of conduct.

    On the other hand, with regards to the second issue, a wife’s refusal of consent would not affect a reconciliation made by a husband. Nevertheless, in this case, since the ruju’ by way of the husband resuming cohabitation with the wife without any form of pronouncement does not constitute a valid ruju’, whether the wife consents or does not consent to the ruju’ would be of no significance in this present case.

    Even if there is a valid ruju’, a wife’s refusal of consent towards the ruju’ would not affect the validity of the reconciliation of marriage. Nevertheless, if the wife refuses to reconcile to the marriage with valid reasons in accordance with hukum syara’, applying Section 51(9) of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984, the Court would not order the wife to proceed with ruju’, but the Court shall appoint a conciliatory committee as provided under Section 47 of the Act and that Section would apply accordingly. Wallahu a’lam. Thank you.

  • HAKAM: ANOTHER WAY OUT FOR MUSLIM WOMEN TO GET A DIVORCE

    HAKAM: ANOTHER WAY OUT FOR MUSLIM WOMEN TO GET A DIVORCE

    HAKAM INTRODUCTION: Talaq is a right which is only conferred upon a husband to divorce his wife. Nevertheless, this right is not absolute and is in fact a restricted one as it is only permitted to be pronounced twice. As Allah says in the Qur’an,

    A divorce is only permissible twice; after that, the parties should either hold together on equitable terms or separate with kindness” (Al-Baqarah: 229).

    However, a wife is granted the privilege to seek divorce by way of khulu’ (redemption), ta’liq, and fasakh. These rights require sanctions from the Court as stated in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016). The brief definitions of the above three types of divorce by a wife are laid down below:

    • Khulu’: A divorce pronounced by the husband by way of redemption after the amount of the payment of tebus talaq (the wife compensates for her release) is made {See s 49 of the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territory) Act 1984 (hereinafter referred to as IFLA 1984) and Surah Al-Baqarah: 229}. 
    • Ta’liq: A divorce due to breach of any stipulation by the husband which is pronounced during the marriage solemnisation, as required by statutes. The breach could be the basis for the wife to lodge a complaint in the Syari’ah Court and it is for the Court to grant the divorce if the breach is satisfactorily proven {See page 175 of the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016)}.
    • Fasakh: A dissolution of marriage through a Court order due to certain acceptable grounds which are recognised under the Islamic law {See page 193 of the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zin, et al. (2016) and s 52 of the IFLA 1984}. 

    Most Muslim women in Malaysia are only aware of these three types of divorce that they could seek in Court. Little did they know the existence of divorce by means of hakam which is less time-consuming and could be a way out for marriages that are hanging on by a thread. 

     

    THE DEFINITION OF HAKAM

    Linguistically speaking, tahkim connotes “conferring power to impose punishment upon someone”, as cited in an article entitled; “Hakam dalam Mahkamah Syariah: Analisis Pelaksanaannya di sisi Prinsip Syariah di Malaysia” written by Hammad Mohamad Dahalan and Mohamad Azhan Yahya. Whereas, the Article provides the technical definition of hakam as “a process where the disputing parties appoint a person each as a hakam (arbitrator) to solve the issue of contention arising between them, in accordance with hukum syara’”. 

    The concept of hakam is not something foreign nor is it a new invention, as it is not only judicially recognised in the context of the Malaysian Islamic Family Law but in fact, it has been encouraged by the Qur’an to be practiced in solving disputes between two parties. The verse related to this is enshrined in Surah An-Nisaa’, verse 35. Allah says:

    And if you fear dissension between the two, send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Acquainted [with all things]

    Reflecting on the above verse, the uniqueness of appointing hakam as an alternative dispute resolution can be seen, whereby the disputing parties are given the right to appoint the arbitrators of their choice. The qualifications required for a hakam before he is appointed would be explained later as we discuss this matter further.

    Through a divorce by way of tahkim, a wife who desires to get a divorce is able to get what she wishes for by following the procedures, as spelled out under Section 48 of the IFLA 1984. 

     

    PROCEDURES OF HAKAM

    A divorce by way of hakam commences the moment a wife files a claim of divorce under Section 47 of the IFLA 1984. Under Section 47(2) of the Act, upon receiving an application for divorce, the Court will issue a summons upon the other party (in this case would be the husband) including a copy of the application and the statutory declaration made by the wife. The summons requires the husband to appear before the Court, in order to inquire whether the husband consents to the divorce or otherwise. 

    If the husband refuses to consent to the divorce, the Court will as soon as possible appoint a conciliatory committee (jawatankuasa pendamai – JKP). The persons appointed under the conciliatory committee, consist of a Religious Officer as Chairman and two other persons, one for the husband and the other for the wife as stated under Section 47(5) of the Act.

    Section 47(14) of the Act states that “where the committee submits to the Court a certificate that it is unable to effect reconciliation and to persuade the parties to resume the conjugal relationship, the Court shall advise the husband to pronounce one talaq before the Court”. Nevertheless, if the husband does not wish to be present in Court to pronounce the talaq or if the husband refuses to pronounce the said talaq, the Court will then refer the case to the attention of hakam and thereby, Section 48 of the Act will apply.

    The State of Selangor has taken the first leap in gazetting the Hakam (State of Selangor) Rules 2014 (hereinafter referred to as the Hakam Rules 2014), which provides detailed guidelines on the implementation of hakam in the Malaysian Syariah Court practice. Rule 3(3) of the Hakam Rules 2014 provides that the Court is required to ensure that syiqaq (constant quarrels between husband and wife which affect the marital harmony – Rule 2 of the Hakam Rules 2014) exists between the husband and wife before the parties are brought before the hakam. This shows that the provision on the appointment of hakam cannot be simply invoked as to avoid from the occurrence of arbitrary or even unnecessary divorce. 

    As stated in a book entitled “Managing Marital Disputes in Malaysia: Islamic Mediators and Conflict Resolution in the Syariah Courtswritten by Sven Cederoth Cederroth and Sharifa Zaleha Syed Hassan, normally a marriage situation is said to be in a state of syiqaq when the husband refuses to let go off the wife (divorce) or when the wife is unable to seek for divorce by means of ta’liq or fasakh due to unavailable grounds. Other instances of syiqaq are listed under Rule 4 of the Hakam Rules 2014. 

     

    THE APPOINTMENT OF HAKAM

    Referring to Rule 4 of the Hakam Rules 2014, hakam can only be appointed from among the close relatives (saudara karib) of the husband and wife who fulfils the qualifications as listed out under sub-rule 8(1) and (2). As interpreted under Rule 4(2) of the Hakam Rules 2014, “close relatives” are referring to “any man who is related by consanguinity, affinity or fosterage and having knowledge on the circumstances of the case”. 

    The qualifications of a hakam as listed out under sub-rule 8(1) are: 

    (a) Professing the religion of Islam;

    (b) Male;

    (c) Possessing a sound mind and reached the age of maturity (mukalaf);

    (d) Just and trustworthy (amanah); and

    (e) Acquiring basic knowledge on family affairs and Hukum Syara’

    Meanwhile, based on Rule 11 of the Hakam Rules 2014, this complies with the directions given by the Court as well as Hukum Syara’ in conducting the Majlis Tahkim (proceeding). Nevertheless, the hakam who is conferred with full authority from the Principal (the husband/wife), has wider power which is to:

    (i) pronounce one talaq or khulu’ before the Court (hakam for the husband)

    (ii) accept the pronouncement of khulu’ before the Court (hakam for the wife) 

    Thus, from here we could see that through hakam, a wife’s wish to dissolve a marriage (even when her husband refuses to consent) can be realised as a hakam with full power is conferred with the authority to pronounce the talaq or khulu’ in order to release the wife from the marriage.

     

    DETERMINATION ON THE TYPES OF DIVORCE

    In order to determine which type of divorce would be pronounced, under Rule 12 of the Hakam Rules 2014, the hakam needs to identify which party causes the syiqaq. Referring to Rule 12(2), if the syiqaq 

    (a) appears to be caused by the husband or both husband and wife, both Hakam shall propose divorce by talak;

    (b) appears to be caused by the wife, both Hakam shall propose divorce by khuluk and the rate of ‘iwadh shall be determined by Hakam;

    (c) cannot be determined in terms of its cause and the husband claims divorce, both Hakam shall propose divorce by talak; or

    (d) cannot be determined in terms of its cause and the wife claims divorce, both Hakam shall propose divorce by khuluk and the rate of ‘iwadh shall be determined by Hakam.

    Whereas, based on Rule 15, either the divorce is made by way of talaq or it is made by way of khulu’, a divorce by way of tahkim has the effect of talaq ba’in. This means, a new ‘aqad is needed if the parties wish to reconcile after the talaq or khulu’ is made. 

     

    CONCLUSION

    In conclusion, the option that is available for a wife who wishes to dissolve her marriage but whose husband refuses to consent is to resort to hakam. This type of divorce acts as a tool to end the “torture that a wife “is compelled” to go through, for having to sail the voyage of marriage which has irretrievably broken down and has lost the essences of mawaddah, sakeenah wa rahmah. In addition, a divorce by way of hakam is also time-efficient as Rule 16(1) of the Hakam Rules 2014 states that (subject to sub-rule (2)) the duration of the proceeding shall not exceed thirty days from the date of the appointment and declaration issued by the Court. Moreover, the application for a divorce by appointing hakam is also budget-friendly as the parties who are planning to apply for hakam are only required to pay the filing cost which is affordable.

    By raising awareness on hakam (especially to Muslim women), they will know that there exists another right of divorce that Muslim women can resort to, apart from khulu’, fasakh and ta’liq. When other means are to no avail, this type of divorce is hoped to be a saviour for Muslim women who are left “gantung tak bertali” by their inhumane and egoistic husbands. Divorce by way of tahkim can be a form of warning to all husbands out there, that the right to pronounce talaq upon their wives is not absolute. Last but not least, this post aims to urge all of the Muslim women out there, to increase their level of legal literacy as many are still clueless about this right that is statutorily conferred to them, which in turn would detriment their very own lives and interests. Furthermore, All Muslim women and men alike should know their obligations as well as their rights as husbands and wives, in order to ensure that they will discharge their duties responsibly and will not allow others to infringe their rights, naively and ignorantly.  Wallahu a’lam.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan.

  • VALIDITY OF PRONOUNCEMENT OF TALAQ TA’LIQ KINAYAH VIA SMS

    THE VALIDITY OF PRONOUNCEMENT OF TALAQ TA’LIQ KINAYAH VIA SMS

    QUESTION REGARDING THE VALIDITY OF TALAQ VIA SMS: Assalamu’alaikum Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. I am Qasrina Qabeel from Sri Hartamas, Kuala Lumpur. I was married in accordance with hukum syara’ on 15th October 2015. We are blessed with one child, named Qaisara Kareem, now aged 2 years 6 months. Our marriage went well throughout the first two years of our marriage. Sadly, the third year of our marriage turned into a state of turmoil just as I found out that my husband is planning to marry his former student studying at the university where he works at. Obviously, I strongly object and take a stand against his plan especially that our marriage is still at its infancy stage and our daughter is still very young and needs the attention and commitment of both parents to develop and grow up healthily. I believe, if he were to marry another one, his attention towards our one and only child would slacken. What more, the lady had just graduated and is much younger than me. I do believe that his love and attention towards me would also diminish. I had twice gone to Lisa’s (the lady’s) house, only to give her advice to leave our family alone and find any other man as long as that man is not my husband. She must have told my husband about this, as one day, during office hours, he had sent me a text message (SMS) to my phone which reads, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.” I felt challenged by my husband’s words and for the third time, I went to Lisa’s house just to prove to Lisa and my husband that I am not a coward without realising that my action, though could satisfy my feelings and anger, might also bite me like a double-edged sword. My question here is thus, is the text message that my husband sent to me amounts to a valid pronouncement of talaq (Ta’lik Kinayah)? And did my act of meeting Lisa after receiving the message from my husband would constitute a valid talaq ta’liq? Wassalam, thank you.

     

    ANSWER:

    1. Wa’alaikumussalam. Thank you, Puan Qasrina for the questions. First and foremost, I would like to extend my sincere sympathies and concern towards the adversity that befalls you. By examining the facts that you have presented and from the questions that you have posed to us, a few legal issues can be formularised, which are:
    • What is the form of pronouncement made by the husband?
    • Whether the text message (SMS) fulfils the valid conditions and pillars of talaq?
    • Whether there is a valid ta’liq divorce?

     

    WHAT IS THE FORM OF PRONOUNCEMENT OF TALAQ MADE BY THE HUSBAND

     

    1. Based on the facts above, your husband had sent you a text message (SMS) which reads, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.Thus, the question which lies here is that, what is the actual or exact form of pronouncement of talaq that your husband had made. It is therefore crucial and of substance to determine whether the pronouncement of talaq which was made in the form of writing (kitabah) is classified as a sarih (express) or kinayah (implied) pronouncement of talaq.

     

    1. Based on the book entitled al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, written by Mustafa al Bugho and ‘Ali al-Syarbaji, page 116, a pronouncement of talaq can be divided into sarih (express) and kinayah (implied). Based on the abovementioned book, “Sarih talaq is a pronouncement of talaq which is used expressly/clearly signifying the meaning of talaq and the wording cannot be interpreted with other meaning(s). The wording or pronouncement can be classified into three, namely; talaq / divorce, release/free and separate.”

     

    1. Whereas, kinayah means “…every wording/pronouncement which may be interpreted as talaq or other than talaq,” as stated in the abovementioned book. In another kitab entitled al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by the eminent scholar; Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 502, kinayah pronouncement includes the pronouncement of talaq which is made in writing. Referring to the SMS which was sent by your husband and the aforementioned authorities from hukum syara’, it can clearly be seen that your husband’s SMS would constitute a pronouncement of talaq in the form of kinayah due to the following reasons:
    • The whole wordings of the sentence in the SMS of your husband did not contain the word “talaq”, “divorce”, “release” or “separate”. In fact, the word used could be interpreted to be meant as talaq or other than talaq.
    • Whereby the “pronouncement” was made in the form of a short message (SMS) which was typed by your husband but was not pronounced verbally to you at any material time.

     

    1. It is also important to note that, a kinayah talaq pronounced by way of SMS is merely the same as a written talaq (kitabah). This is following the maxim which is laid down in Article 69 of the Majalla which reads; “الكتاب كالخطاب” which carries the meaning of ‘the letter is considered as an oral expression’ as cited in the “Introduction to Middle Eastern Lawby Chibli Mallat. Thus, when it comes to a pronouncement of talaq in the form of SMS, as what happens in this present case, in order to determine whether the SMS is a kinayah or a sarih form of pronouncement of talaq, the word used in the SMS must be observed and considered, as what has been discussed in the foregoing paragraphs. And as discussed in the preceding paragraphs, if the pronouncement is in the form of kinayah, the intention of the husband whether to/not to divorce needs to be taken into account.

     

    WHETHER THE TEXT MESSAGE (SMS) FULFILS THE VALID CONDITIONS AND ELEMENTS OF TALAQ?

     

    1. In the message (SMS), your husband had written, “If you meet Lisa just once more, I will move out of your life.” The message was sent to your phone number from your husband’s phone number as stated in the facts of this case. In determining whether a valid talaq has been made or otherwise, based on the text message, it depends on whether all the pillars and conditions of a valid talaq have been fulfilled. In the book entitled al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 479, the pillars of talaq according to the Shafi’ie Madzhab consist of five pillars:
    • The one who pronounces the talaq (Taliq)
    • Sighah
    • Mahal
    • Possessing wilayah
    • Possessing qasad

     

    1. Referring to the first pillar of talaq, if your husband is a mukallaf (baligh (had reached the age of puberty) and of sound mind) and had not been coerced to pronounce the talaq, thus the first pillar is fulfilled. Moving to the second pillar i.e. sighah, your husband had pronounced the talaq in the form of kinayah and in a written form which was a text message (SMS). Thus, since it was a kinayah form of pronouncement of talaq, it requires intention. If the lafaz or pronouncement is not accompanied with an intention to make a talaq, the pronouncement would not amount to a valid This is based on al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili.

     

    1. Next, the third pillar of talaq is mahal. Referring to an unreported case of Mahad Ahmed Mohamed v Natasha Binti Zolkeflee, mahal talaq refers to whom the talaq is addressed to. Kitab I’anat al-Talibin states that, to make the lafaz talaq as one complete sentence, the language used in the sentence must also be comprehendible which shall include the status or the position of the person to whom the talaq was pronounced (mahal talaq) and the wording of the talaq In the above cited case, the Court referred to the sentence “It’s over between us”, whereby in the Plaintiff’s testimony, the Plaintiff admitted that the word “us” referred to both the Plaintiff and Defendant. The Defendant also testified that the Plaintiff had pronounced the talaq and had understood that the pronouncement was meant to divorce the Defendant. Thus, the Court was satisfied that the requirement of mahal talaq was fulfilled.

     

    1. Applying the above principle to this present case, the pronouncement of talaq was made in a written form, by way of kinayah, and was sent as a text message to your phone number by your husband. Thus, the third pillar is fulfilled as the words “I will move out of your life was addressed to you by your husband, as the lawful wife of your husband. From the sentence “I will move out of your life, the word “I” refers to your husband and the word “your” refers to you.

     

    1. Moving to the fourth pillar which is possessing wilayah. Wilayah means authority. In the above cited case, the Court was satisfied that the requirement of wilayah was also fulfilled in that case as when the talaq was pronounced, the Defendant was still the lawful wife of the Plaintiff and thus, was still under the wilayah or authority of the Plaintiff as the lawful husband of the Defendant. Applying the principle to this present case, if you have not been divorced by your husband prior to receiving the message (SMS) and you are still the lawful wife of your husband whilst the talaq is being pronounced, thus, this requirement is also fulfilled.

     

    1. The last pillar of talaq is qasad or intention. Since your husband had pronounced a kinayah talaq, thus, based on the kitab of al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili as discussed above, only if your husband intended to divorce you whilst typing the message to you, would the pronouncement of talaq via the SMS, constitutes a valid pronouncement of talaq.

     

    WHETHER THERE IS A VALID FORM OF TA’LIQ DIVORCE

     

    1. It is also crucial to take into consideration that the lafaz kinayah was made together with ta’liq which states, “If you meet Lisa once more, I will move out of your life”. According to the kitab of al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili, volume 7, page 565, sighah could be in the forms of attaching/annexing talaq to a matter which happens in the future and sighah which is not attached to a condition. There are three types of talaq, which are instant talaq, conditional talaq and talaq that is based on a future time.

     

    1. Based on the ta’liq that was made by your husband, it was a conditional ta’liq whereby talaq will only take place should the subject matter of the ta’liq is committed in the future, using the word such as; if, when, among others. Therefore, the lafaz talaq that was pronounced by your husband to you via the text message (SMS) was a lafaz kinayah and was pronounced conditionally (ta’liq) whereby, the talaq was conditional upon your meeting with Lisa after receiving the message from your husband.

     

    1. Nevertheless, despite you having met Lisa after receiving the SMS from your husband, your husband had used the word or term “will” or in Malay it would be translated to “akan”, a term which is expressing a future tense as elucidated in the Oxford Dictionaries. Thus, it is still questionable whether talaq would instantly fall or not. Two questions have to be considered. Firstly, whether the term “will” is merely a threat to divorce you should you meet Lisa once more after receiving the message, or in other words, whether your husband really intends to take an action to divorce you when using the word “will”. Secondly, whether talaq would instantly fall, once the action of, i.e. meeting Lisa, is fulfilled. Only if your husband intends to divorce you instantly once the action is fulfilled, would the pronouncement of talaq ta’liq constitute a valid pronouncement of divorce.

     

    CONCLUSION

    1. In conclusion, based on the above discussions, the pronouncement of talaq that was made by your husband (validity of talaq via SMS) was a kinayah pronouncement of talaq. Moreover, since the pronouncement of talaq is attached with a condition, such a pronouncement would constitute a conditional divorce (talaq ta’liq). The talaq ta’liq would only be valid after the condition is fulfilled. Nevertheless, since the words used are ambiguous and not clearly expressing talaq, thus, it depends on the intention of your husband if he really intends to divorce you or not. Since this issue involves several complicated matters, it is best and advisable for you to seek the aid and assistance of a Syarie lawyer to advise you regarding this matter. Wallahu a’lam. Thank you.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan

  • Marriage Validity and Attribution of Nasab

    MARRIAGE VALIDITY & ATTRIBUTION OF NASAB

    QUESTION ABOUT MARRIAGE VALIDITY: Assalamu’alaikum Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan. I am Khairul Bin Asri from Bandar Baru Bangi. I got married to my wife; Arini Syakilla in Taiping, Perak and are blessed with one daughter. During the marriage ceremony, my wife’s father was still in existent and lived in Kerteh, Terengganu and was also the wali mujbir of my wife. However, my father in-law did not become the wali for my wife as we solemnised our marriage without his knowledge as my wife doubted that his father would permit us to get married since we were then still in our foundation studies at the Foundation Centre. Nevertheless, my wife never asked for his permission and consent prior to our marriage, hence, there was actually no evidence that my father in law refused to consent. In turn, the man who became my wife’s wali was a man by the name of Ahmad Bin Tokiman, who claimed to be a wali hakim. Problems arose when we received a letter from the Office of the Administration of Islam, Taiping, Perak, stating that our marriage certificate was a forgery and was never issued by any Deputy Registrar of the kariah in the area. I have two questions to ask. Firstly, whether our marriage was lawful and secondly, whether the nasab of our daughter can be attributed to me?

     

    ANSWER:

    1. Wa’alaikumussalam Encik Khairul. Thank you for the genuine questions. I would like to express my concern towards the problems that you and your wife are currently facing and will try my level best to attend to your queries. First and foremost, referring to the facts that you have presented, we have to determine the issues which need to be addressed. There are two issues here, namely:
      1. Whether the marriage which was solemnised in Taiping was valid according to Syara’  (Marriage validity)?
      2. Whether the nasab of the daughter can be attributed to the father?

     

    WHETHER THE MARRIAGE WHICH WAS SOLEMNISED IN TAIPING WAS VALID ACCORDING TO SYARA’

     

    1. In determining marriage validity, we must observe whether all the pillars of a valid marriage in accordance with syara’ are met. Legally speaking, Section 11 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 provides that:

    A marriage shall be void unless all conditions necessary, according to Hukum Syarak for the validity thereof are satisfied.

     

    1. The provision does not list out one by one the pillars of marriage, hence, credible Islamic books can be of good reference. Referring to Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma’rifati Ma’ani Alfaz Al-Minhaj by Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Khatib Al-Sharbini, there are 5 pillars of nikah which are also reiterated in kitab Al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, Juz 4, page 55. The pillars of marriage are:
    • Bridegroom(az-zauj)
    • Bride (az-zaujah)
    • Guardian (wali)
    • Witnesses (Syahidain an-Nikah)
    • Pronouncement of Offer and Acceptance (As-Sighah Ijab wa Qabul)

     

    1. Referring to the first pillar of marriage, i.e. bridegroom, we have to consider whether all of the conditions which are required for the bridegroom to satisfy are fulfilled. The conditions are stated in kitab Al-Iqna’ Fi al-Faz Abi Syuja’, Volume 2, page 246. Firstly, the man is lawful to be married. Secondly, the consent to marry is made voluntarily not under duress. Thirdly, a specific man. Fourthly, the man knows that the woman is lawful to be married.

     

    1. Other conditions can be seen from the Qur’an, such as the man must be a Muslim. This is stated in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 221 which states, “And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you.” The bridegroom must also not have four wives at the time of the marriage ceremony. This is in consonance with the verse of the Qur’an which restricts the maximum number of wives for a man to get married up to four, whereby in Surah An-Nisa’, verse 3, Allah says, “And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice].”

      

    1. Hence, if you have fulfilled all of these conditions and are not under ihram during the marriage solemnisation, then the first pillar of marriage is fulfilled.

     

    1. Next, with regards to the second pillar of marriage, which is the bride, in the Qur’an, in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 221, whereby Allah says:

    Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters) until they believe. A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman even though she allures you.

    In addition, in another verse Allah says, “(Lawful to you in marriage) are not only chaste women who are believers but chaste women among the people of the Book revealed before your time ­ – when you give them their dowers and desire chastity not lewdness nor secret intrigues.”

     

    1. Thus, based on the above two verses, the bride must either be a Muslim or a kitabiyyah. Since there is no mention in the facts that you have presented that your wife is a kitabiyyah, a discussion pertaining to it need not be elaborated further. Apart from being a Muslim, based on the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016), the bride must also not be associated with any marital relationship at the time of the marriage. Moreover, she must also ensure that she is not within the prohibited degrees of blood or fosterage relationship.

     

    1. Therefore, if your wife has no obstruction to get married by fulfilling all the conditions of a valid bride, thus, the second pillar of marriage is also said to have been fulfilled.

     

    1. Moving on to the third pillar of marriage, which is wali. This pillar is of great importance in this present case before us since your marriage was solemnised without your wife’s wali’s knowledge and consent. Shahrin Nasution in his book called Fiqh Lengkap Perkahwinan, defines wali as “a person who has the right to give away a woman in marriage”. This is cited in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016). The necessity to have a wali in a marriage is emphasised in the hadith of the Prophet which states to the effect that: “There is no marriage without wali”.

     

    1. Based on the facts that you have stated, during the marriage ceremony, your wife’s father who was also a wali mujbir was in existent. Nevertheless, the marriage was solemnised by a purported wali hakim, or simply said, by a person falsely representing himself as a wali hakim. We firstly have to define the meanings of wali mujbir and wali hakim.

     

    1. Wali mujbir is a guardian with the power of compulsion, which means, he has complete rights over the woman under his care, to marry her off to a man that is of the same/similar social status (kafaah) without her prior consent. The power to become wali mujbir is specially designated to the father and the paternal grandfather of the bride only. This is stated by Mohammad Azam Hussain and Alias Azhar in their article entitled; The Definition of Wali (Guardian) in Marriage from the Perspective of Fiqh and Family Law in Malaysia. Section 2 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 also defines wali mujbir as the father or the paternal grandfather and above.

     

    1. On the other hand, wali hakim means “a Sultan or a Leader as the Head of an Islamic State or a Judge or any other person who is granted permission and conferred with the power to become a wali nikah for the woman.” This is stated by Al-Syeikh al-Imam al-‘Allamah Muwaffaq al-Din Abi Muhammad ‘Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mahmud bin Qudamah, 1972 in Al-Mughni, Volume 7 and cited in the aforementioned article.

     

    1. Whereas, in Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu, Volume 7, states that “the majority of the ‘ulamaa’ opines that a marriage solemnisation is not valid except if it is solemnised by a wali. A woman cannot marry herself off, nor can she marry off others, and she also cannot appoint others to become a wali to marry her off. If such acts are done, the marriage is not valid regardless whether the woman has already come of age, is of sound mind and is already matured…If the wali refuses to marry her off, thus the hakim shall act as the wali for a person who has no wali.

     

    1. Referring to the facts that you have presented, when the marriage between you and your wife was solemnised in Taiping, Perak, the wali mujbir was in existent and stayed in Kerteh, Terengganu. A wali mujbir can only be substituted with a wali hakim upon three main grounds, namely, when the wali refuses to consent, when the wali disappears (ghaib) or when he is unavailable. These three grounds are stipulated under section 13(b) of the Enactment.

     

    1. With regards to the first ground, in order to know whether there is in fact a refusal from the wali, there must be a prior confirmation and approval by the Judge. Our religion strongly detests if a wali refuses to marry off the woman under his guardianship without lawful reasons. This is explained in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016).

     

    1. In this present case, there is no express evidence to show that the wali had refused to give his consent for the marriage, as you and your wife did not even convey about the marriage to the wali and the wali did not even have the knowledge regarding the marriage. And your wife only had doubt on whether the wali would or would not consent to the marriage. Thus, the first ground to allow a wali hakim to substitute a wali mujbir would not be successfully invoked.

     

    1. Moving on the last two grounds, i.e., when the wali disappears or when the wali is unavailable, the issue of distance comes into the picture. Based on the decided local cases such as in the cases of Hashim v Fatimah [1977] 5 JH 106, Zakaria v Maria [1977] 3 JH 97, and Saad bin Syafie v Sarimah bt Saad [1992] 9(2) JH 203, only if the wali resides in a place which is situated more than two marhalah from the place of marriage, can the marriage be solemnised by a wali hakim, provided that other required conditions are fulfilled.

     

    1. In this present case, despite the distance between Kerteh and Taiping exceeds two marhalah, the “wali hakim” which solemnised your marriage was a falsely represented wali hakim. And based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, there was also no pronouncement of wakalah wali from the wali mujbir to the man who solemnised the marriage. Thus, the status of that juru nikah which was tainted with forgery would make the requirement of wali not to be fulfilled in this present case.

     

    1. Next, with regards to the fourth pillar of marriage, which is the presence of two witnesses during the marriage ceremony, the Qur’an, in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 282 states:

    and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as you choose for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her

     

    1. Based on al-Khatib al-Sharbani, page 235, written by Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Muhammad, a marriage is invalid except if it is solemnised in the presence of two male witnesses who are free, ‘adil, able to hear, see and understand the ijab (offer) and qabul (acceptance). Since the facts are silent with regards to the issue of witnesses, thus, the requirement of two witnesses as has been discussed above needs to be satisfied in order to meet the requirement of the fourth pillar of marriage.

     

    1. The last pillar of marriage is the pronouncement of offer and acceptance (as-sighah ijab wa qabul). Based on Ala’eddin Kharofa, page 45, as cited in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia by Najibah Mohd Zain et al. (2016), there are a few conditions of a valid pronouncement of ijab and qabul. Firstly, the sighah must be made in an official ceremonial gathering. Secondly, both of the parties must be able to hear each other and the pronouncement should be comprehendible by each of them that the contract is for the purpose of marriage. Thirdly, the acceptance should tally with the offer that is made, and lastly, the marriage contract should be witnessed by two witnesses which must be legally acceptable. Since the facts are silent about how the sighah was pronounced, thus, considering all the conditions of a valid sighah are fulfilled, the last pillar of marriage is said to be fulfilled.

     

    1. Nevertheless, based on the above discussion, since the requirement of a valid wali is not present in this case, based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, the marriage would be fasid or in other words, it would result to an irregular marriage. A fasid marriage happens when there is a lacking of the requirements of a valid marriage such as a marriage without a wali. This is stated by Abdul Azis Bin Abdul Rawi Bin Ali Al-Jabar in his kitab, Al-Hukm bi-Ithbat an-Nasab. Thus, both of you would be separated (faraq) due to the irregularity of the marriage. And the consummation which took place due to the fasid marriage would constitute wati syubhah (syubhah intercourse). Based on Section 2 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, a syubhah intercourse is interpreted as an “intercourse performed on erroneous impression that the marriage was valid when in fact the marriage was not valid (fasid) or intercourse by mistake and includes any intercourse not punishable by Had in Islam”.

     

    WHETHER THE NASAB OF THE DAUGHTER CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE FATHER

     

    1. Referring to an article entitled, “Pensabitan Nasab dan Anak Tak Sah Taraf dari Perspektif Syariah dan Perundangan Islam di Malaysia”, written by Paizah Hj. Ismail, according to the fuqaha’, lineage (nasab) in Islam can be acquired via three means. One of them is when there is a syubhah intercourse between a man and a woman.

     

    1. In the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, there is a specific provision with regards to a syubhah. It is stated under Section 114 of the Enactment. The Section provides, “Where a man has syubhah sexual intercourse with a woman, and she is subsequently delivered of a child between the period of six qamariah months to four qamariah years after the intercourse, the paternity of the child shall be ascribed to the man.”

     

    1. Based on the above provision and based on the case of Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57, if your daughter was 6 months after your marriage, then, the nasab of your daughter could be attributed to you as the biological father of the child.

     

    CONCLUSION:

     

    1. In conclusion, based on the foregoing discussions, the answer to the question on your marriage validity is that, your marriage that was solemnised in Taiping, Perak by a falsely represented wali hakim, would result in the marriage being fasid (irregular) due to the non-fulfilment of one of the pillars of nikah (arkan an-nikah).Whereas, in respect of the attribution of lineage of your daughter to you, if it can be satisfactorily proven that your daughter was born 6 months after the solemnisation of your marriage, then, it is most likely that the nasab of your daughter could be attributed to you. Since your queries involved several complicated matters, I humbly advise you to seek and consult a Syarie Lawyer who is eligible to address and answer these questions.

    Article published for Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan

  • peguam syarie faiz adnan hadhanah

    IBU MENANGIS TIDAK DAPAT HAK HADHANAH SELEPAS BERCERAI

    Soalan :

    Saya ingin mengajukan soalan kepada Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan berkaitan hadhanah. Saya Fatimah (bukan nama sebenar) dan suami telah berkahwin pada 23/2/2011. Hasil perkahwinan kami telahpun dikurniakan 2 orang anak iaitu Rania Aisya berumur 4 tahun dan Aqif Adli 2 tahun. Namun, pada suatu petang saya bergaduh besar dengan bekas suami saya sehingga saya meminta dia menceraikan saya dan berjanji untuk memberi anak-anak kepada dia jika dia (suami) menceraikan saya. Kami kemudian telah sah bercerai pada tahun 2017. Anak-anak saya sehingga sekarang berada dengan bekas suami saya. Tapi sekarang saya telah berkahwin baru dan saya benar-benar merindui anak-anak saya dan menyesal atas perbuatan saya. Saya juga berhasrat untuk mengambil anak-anak saya duduk dan tinggal dengan saya. Adakah saya masih mempunyai hak hadhanah  di sisi undang-undang terhadap kedua anak tersebut? Saya benar-benar menginginkannya. Saya mohon nasihat tuan.

     

    Jawapan:

    Bismilahirahmanirrahim,

    Hadhanah. Menurut seksyen 76 Akta Undang-undang Keluarga Islam Wilayah Persekutuan 1984, undang-undang membenarkan suatu perintah hak jagaan anak itu diubah atas alasan yang munasabah. Berdasarkan peruntukan ini, jelas Puan masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan semula hak jagaan anak tersebut. Oleh itu, tindakan awal yang perlu Puan ambil ialah failkan permohonan ubah perintah hak jagaan anak yang telah diputuskan oleh mahkamah sebelum ini. Seterusnya, dalam permohonan tersebut, Puan perlu nyatakan alasan mengapa permohonan tersebut perlu diubah. Amnya, alasan-alasan yang biasa diberikan ialah telah wujud salah penyataan; atau telah wujud kesilapan fakta; atau telah berlaku perubahan matan tentang hal keadaan berdasarkan perjanjian yang telah dibuat. Disamping itu dalam memutuskan kes ini, Mahkamah juga mengambil kira tiga perkara berikut :

    ·  Kebajikan anak-anak puan

    ·  Umur anak-anak puan ketika hak hadhanah ini dipohon di mahkamah

    ·  Kelayakan puan dalam mendapatkan hak hadhanah

     

    Sebelum menentukan kepada siapa hak hadhanah ini diberikan, perkara utama yang dinilai dan diberi perhatian lebih oleh Mahkamah ialah kebajikan anak. Dalam Kitab Al-Fiqh Al Muqarran Lil Al-Ehwal Shaksiyyah Oleh Sr. Badran Abul Ainnaini Juz 1 Ms 543-544 menyebut :

     

    غاية لامر أن حق الصغير اقوى لان مصلحته مقدمة على مصلحة ابويه وانه يجب العمل بما هو انفغ واصلح للصغير في باب الخضانة

     

    Dari segi kebajikan, Mahkamah menfokuskan kepada 5 perkara asas iaitu makan minum, pakaian, pendidikan, perubatan dan tempat tinggal. Kelima-lima perkara asas ini secara tidak langsung berkait rapat dengan isu kemampuan. Oleh itu, Puan perlu buktikan kepada Mahkamah bahawa Puan mampu menyediakan dan menjaga keperluan anak tersebut dengan baik. Soal bagaimana mengagihkan tanggungjawab menyediakan nafkah anak, ia bergantung kepada persetujuan bersama atau perintah nafkah anak yang dikeluarkan oleh Mahkamah.

    Kedua, jika dilihat pada umur anak puan pada waktu ini adalah masing-masing berumur 4 tahun (anak perempuan) dan 2 tahun (anak lelaki), menurut undang-undang, ibu adalah orang yang paling berhak mendapat hak hadhanah inisehinggalah anak-anak tersebut mencapai umur mumayyiz meskipun anak-anak tersebut diberikan pada suami Puan pada awal penceraian. Berdasarkan petikan daripada kitab kifayah al-Akhyarjuz. 2 ms 161 yang menyatakan:

     

    وإذا فارق الرجل زوجته وله منها ولد فهي احق بخضانته الى سبع سنين

     

    Maksudnya: Apabila berlakunya perpisahan di antara suami dan isteri dan mereka mempunyai anak hasil perkahwinan tersebut, maka ibu adalah orang yang berhak menjaga anak itu sehingga berumur 7 tahun.

    a)      Berkahwin dengan orang yang tidak mahram dengan anak-anaknya

    b)      Berkelakuan buruk secara keterlaluan dan terbuka

    c)      Menukar permaustatinan dengan tujuan menghalang bapa anak-anak tersebut menjalankan pengawasanya

    d)      Murtad

    e)      Menganiaya dan mengabaikan anak-anak

     

    Namun, puan haruslah mengetahui bahawa hak hadhanah boleh hilang apabila didapati orang itu termasuk dalam kategori gugur hak atau hilang kelayakan sebagai seorang hadhinah (penjaga) kepada anak-anak tersebut. Dan kesannya ialah hak hadhanah daripada ibu (puan) boleh berpindah kepada orang lain seperti (suami puan) dan sesiapa yang difikirkan layak menurut Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam seksyen 84 akta yang sama. Hal ini menurut seksyen 83 AUKIWP  1984: Hak sesorang perempuan terhadap hadhanah adalah hilang;-

    Berdasarkan fakta kes ini, puan telah pun berkahwin lain dan menyebabkan hak hadhanah puan terhadap anak-anak tersebut gugur. Hal ini dirujuk berdasarkan hadith Rasulullah SAW:

     

    انت احق بها ما لم تنكحى

     

    Maksudnya : Engkau berhak kepada hadhanah selama mana kamu tidak berkahwin lain.

    Meskipun Puan telah mendapat keredhan dan keizinan suami untuk menjaga anak-anak tersebut namun sedikit sebanyak kebajikan anak-anak tersebut mungkin akan terjejas. Dalam kitab al-Akhyar Juz. 2 ms 153 menyatakan:

     

    لأنها مشغولة بالزوج فيضرر الولد اثر لرضا الزوج

     

    Maksudnya: … isteri biasanya sibuk melayani suaminya dan sudah tentu menjejaskan kedudukan anak itu meskipun ada keredhaan suaminya untuk jaga sama tapi ianya tak beerti.

    Ayat ini berkaitan hukum syarak yang menetapkan bahawa hilang kelayakan isteri yang telah berkahwin lain walaupun dengan redha suaminya dalam menuntut hadhanah. Islam merupakan agama yang mementingkan seorang isteri itu memelihara hubungan dengan suaminya selama-lamanya. Juga, menolak kemudaratan terjadinya apa-apa perkara yang tidak diingini pada anak-anak yang bakal dijaga lebih-lebih lagi melibatkan anak perempuan yang bukan mahram dengan suami yang baru. Tambahan pula,  faktor lambakan kes-kes berkaitan bapa haruan, bapa yang menganiaya anak tiri sehingga trauma apabila isteri tiada di rumah dan bekerja yang kemudian tugas menjaga anak tersebut beralih kepada bapa tiri.

    Namun, masih wujud ruang dan peluang untuk puan mendapatkan hak hadhanah ini daripada bekas suami puan dengan dengan memohon ibu puan (nenek) sebagai hadhinah (penjaga) kepada anak-anak puan di mahkamah kerana menurut seksyen 81 AUKIWP 1984, susunan orang yang berhak dalam menjaga anak-anak selepas ibu adalah nenek dan puan haruslah membuktikan kepada mahkamah bahawa ibu puan sememangnya layak untuk menjaga kebajikan bagi anak-anak puan dan membuktikan bahawa bekas suami puan telah tidak menjalankan kebajikan anak-anak puan dengan baik.

    Dalam isu hadhanah ini, mahkamah akan melihat segala faktor secara menyeluruh, terutama kebajikan dan kemaslahatan anak, bukan melihat kepada kepentingan si ibu atau si bapa. Kebajikan anak adalah yang paling utama mengikut maqasid syariahbagi menjamin kehidupan masa depan yang lebih baik bagi anak itu. Contoh kes diihat pada kes Norhaiza lwn saat (1996) di mana mahkamah menolak tuntutan isteri yang telah berkahwin lain dalam tuntutan mengubah perintah mahkamah berkaitan hadhanah pada bekas suaminya.

     

    Artikel disiarkan untuk laman web Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan Associates.

  • suami-nafsu-kuat

    ISTERI TERANIAYA: SUAMI NAFSU KUAT DAN SUKA MENGHABISKAN HARTA ISTERI

    Soalan: Saya Farah (bukan nama sebenar) merupakan suri rumahtangga sepenuh masa. Saya mempunyai 3 orang anak. Perkahwinan saya dan suami telah mencecah 5 tahun. Suami saya seorang yang sangat kuat nafsu syahwatnya – suami nafsu kuat. Sejak dari awal perkahwinan lagi suami saya tak kira pagi, petang atau malam beliau sering minta bersama sampai saya tak larat melayani dia. Telah beberapa kali saya cuba tolak pelawaan tapi suami paksa saya bersama. Akibat daripada kekerapan melakukan hubungan kelamin, saya telah mengalami pendarahan pada alat sulit dan kerap rasa sakit-sakit. Bila saya mengadu, suami tidak mengendahkan dan langsung tidak pernah bawa saya ke klinik untuk pemeriksaan. Saya hanya bergantung pada ubat tahan sakit saja. Dalam keadaan saya begitu pun, suami tetap dengan sikapnya. Saya betul-betul rasa tertekan dengan masalah ini. Hanya mengenangkan anak-anak sahaja saya masih bertahan dan bersabar sehingga sekarang. Saya pernah menyuarakan masalah ini padanya namun apa yang berlaku, suami saya marah dan tengking saya. Dia mengatakan saya wajib patuh sebab itu arahan daripadanya sebagai suami. Suami juga kadang-kadang sanggup tak pergi kerja kerana nakkan bersama. Dia juga sering bertukar kerja kerana masalah kehadiran dan komitmen.

    suami-nafsu-kuat-2Dari segi duit pula, tanggungan tidak sepenuhnya dari pendapatan suami sebab gaji suami kecil dan kadang-kadang tak ada gaji (dalam tempoh tak bekerja). Hampir kesemua tanggungan tersebut adalah dari saya sendiri. Sebelum saya berkahwin dengan suami, saya mempunyai pekerjaan tetap dengan gaji yang lumayan. Saya telah mempunyai kereta, rumah, duit simpanan dan barang-barang kemas. Namun, semua harta-harta tersebut dicagar oleh suami satu demi satu dan digunakan untuk tampung keperluan keluarga. Suami berjanji untuk tebusnya kembali tapi sekarang lain pula jadinya.  Bila saya bertanyakan tentang harta2 tersebut, suami mengamuk dan ugut saya nak bawa lari anak-anak jika saya sebut tentang hal ini lagi dan dia juga cakap yang dia tak akan tebus harta-harta itu sebab duit tak ada. Saya sekarang buat bisnes online. Alhamdulillah sedikit sebanyak ada juga pendapatan. Tapi sedihnya, kad bank saya suami pegang dan dia gunakan wang itu ikut suka hati tanpa minta izin daripada saya terlebih dahulu. Sejujurnya, saya sudah tidak tahan lagi meneruskan perkahwinan ini dan bercadang untuk bercerai. So, apa yang perlu saya lakukan? Apakah hak yang boleh saya tuntut selepas penceraian? Mohon nasihat.

     

    Jawapan: Terima kasih Puan atas soalan yang diajukan dan saya simpati atas apa yang berlaku atas diri Puan.

    Sebelum saya menerangkan dengan lebih lanjut, harapnya penceraian ini adalah usaha terakhir yang Puan ambil untuk selesaikan konflik rumahtangga Puan dan suami.

    Baiklah, setelah meneliti satu-persatu permasalahan Puan, keadaan dan situasi Puan pada ketika ini adalah diharuskan bercerai mengikut Hukum Syarak berdasarkan 3 sebab berikut:

    1. Telah timbul kemudharatan pada diri Puan akibat dari sikap suami yang terus menerus memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin.
    2. Suami telah dengan sengaja cuai memperuntukkan nafkah zahir kepada Puan.
    3. Suami telah dengan sengaja melupuskan harta Puan.

    Bagi proses penceraian, memandangkan Puan dan suami masih tinggal sebumbung maka langkah awal yang sebaiknya dibuat ialah Puan berbincang tentang penceraian ini dengan suami terlebih dahulu. Jika suami bersetuju untuk menceraikan Puan, maka Puan boleh menfailkan permohonan cerai di bawah seksyen 47 Akta/Enakmen Undang-Undang Keluarga Islam. Prosiding penceraian di bawah seksyen ini lebih mudah kerana ia tidak memerlukan kepada pembuktian atau perbicaraan jika pihak-pihak telah bersetuju untuk berpisah. Selain itu, segala aib pasangan juga tidak dibuka. Dari segi Hukum Syarak, tindakan ini sangat dituntut dalam Islam berdasarkan surah al-Baqarah ayat 229, Allah s.w.t berfirman:

     

    فإمساك بمعروف أو تسريح بإحسان

    Maksud: “Setelah itu suami dapat menahannya dengan cara yang baik dan melepaskan dengan baik.”

     

    Manakala jika berlaku sebaliknya yakni keadaan di mana suami Puan tidak menerima atau tidak mahu hadir prosiding penceraian, maka Puan boleh menfailkan tuntutan fasakh di bawah seksyen 53 Akta/Enakmen yang sama. Ini kerana sebab-sebab penceraian Puan seperti yang disebutkan di atas juga ada diperuntukan di bawah seksyen 53.

    Dalam permohonan fasakh, Puan perlu nyatakan bersama alasan-alasan fasakh yang berkaitan seperti berikut:

    (1) suami telah lazim menyakiti dan menjadikan kehidupan Puan menderita disebabkan oleh kelakuan aniayanya,

    (2)  suami telah melupuskan harta Puan dan

    (3)  suami telah cuai mengadakan peruntukan bagi nafkah selama 3 bulan berturut-turut.

    Setiap alasan-alasan yang dikemukakan dalam permohonan fasakh perlu dibuktikan wujud. Kegagalan Puan mengemukakan bukti atau saksi bagi menyokong alasan tersebut boleh menyebabkan tuntutan/permohonan fasakh Puan ditolak.

    Dalam kes fasakh, perkara yang paling penting ialah pembuktian. Saya bantu Puan dalam hal ini. Berdasarkan kepada alasan yang pertama, “suami telah lazim menyakiti dan ……” adalah merujuk kepada tindakan suami yang kerap memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin sehingga menyebabkan pendarahan pada alat sulit Puan. Hal keadaan ini dikuatkan lagi dengan kelakuan aniaya suami Puan yang langsung tidak mengendahkan kesakitan yang Puan alami dan berterusan memaksa Puan melakukan hubungan kelamin. Akibat daripada sikap suami, Puan mengalami pendarahan dan tekanan perasan. Bagi membuktikan perkara ini, Puan perlu sediakan laporan perubatan. Laporan perubatan disini merujuk kepada laporan doktor berkenaan dengan pendarahan pada alat sulit dan juga laporan pakar psikiatri yang mengesahkan bahawa Puan sememangnya mengalami tekanan perasaan.

    Seterusnya bagi alasan yang kedua, kecuaian suami memperuntukan nafkah adalah merujuk kepada situasi dimana suami tidak sepenuhnya menanggung keperluan keluarga malah sebaliknya telah menggunakan wang simpanan dan harta Puan untuk tujuan tersebut. Ini berlaku kerana suami tidak mempunyai gaji yang tetap ekoran dari masalah bertukar-tukar tempat kerja. Dalam perkara ini, Puan boleh mengemukakan saksi iaitu bekas majikan suami Puan bagi menerangkan tentang sikap dan komitmen suami sebagai pekerja. Selain itu, jiran juga boleh dibawa menjadi saksi sekiranya jiran tersebut kerap melihat kelibat suami di rumah dan mengetahui bahawa suami  tidak  bekerja. Pendek cerita, segala dokumen yang berkaitan yang Puan rasa ianya menyokong alasan tersebut boleh dikemukakan di Mahkamah.

    Bagi alasan yang terakhir iaitu suami telah dengan sengaja melupuskan harta Puan. Difahamkan bahawa suami dalam kes ini telah mungkir janji untuk menebus kembali harta-harta yang telah dicagar tambahan turut mengugut Puan untuk membawa lari anak sekiranya hal ini diungkit lagi. Baik, bagi masalah ini Puan perlu sediakan dokumen2 yang berkaitan dengan transaksi cagaran. Jika transaksi tersebut dibuat secara lisan, sebaiknya minta kerjasama orang yang menerima cagaran itu untuk beri keterangan di Mahkamah bagi mengesahkan kewujudan transaksi tersebut. Selain itu, dokumen harta dan rekod wang simpanan Puan juga perlu dikemukakan untuk menunjukkan harta-harta tersebut adalah kepunyaan Puan. Berhubung dengan isu bawa lari anak, saya cadangkan Puan mohon perintah injuksi dari Mahkamah Syariah. Ini penting untuk menghalang suami dari bawa lari anak dan sekiranya berlaku kejadian ini suami Puan boleh ditangkap dan dipenjarakan. Dalam masa yang sama, Puan juga dinasihatkan untuk memohon perintah interim hadhanah. Permohonan ini adalah bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hak jagaan sementara sepanjang tempoh prosiding berjalan.

    Berkenaan dengan hak-hak selepas penceraian, jika Puan becerai secara baik maka hak yang boleh dituntut ialah nafkah iddah, mutaah, harta sepencarian, hadhanah, dam nafkah anak. Dan sekiranya penceraian secara fasakh, semua hak-hak yang disebutkan Puan boleh tuntut kecuali nafkah iddah.

    Saya kira penerangan yang serba ringkas ini dapat memandu Puan untuk tindakan lanjut. Cuma, saya nasihatkan supaya Puan guna khidmat Peguam Syarie supaya kes ini dikendalikan mengikut prosiding undang-undang yang betul dan menepati Hukum Syarak. Sekiranya Puan ingin bertanya dengan lebih lanjut, Puan boleh hubungi kami di 012 667 6200 (Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan) atau pejabat 03-2283 1400/03-2283 3400 atau datang terus ke firma kami di Bangsar Utama. Terima kasih.

    Share sekiranya artikel ini bermanfaat!

     

  • pengesahan-nikah-kahwin-dengan-bukan-warganegara

    PENGESAHAN NIKAH: KAHWIN DENGAN BUKAN WARGANEGARA – PART 2

    Ramai yang mengajukan soalan kepada pihak Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan, melalui email, SMS, Facebook dan sebagainya berkaitan dengan masalah masing-masing dan antara yang banyak dikemukakan kepada kami ialah mengenai pengesahan nikah apabila berkahwin dengan bukan warganegara Malaysia. Ikuti soalan dan jawapan yang kami sediakan seperti di bawah. Semoga sedikit sebanyak dapat membantu anda yang memerlukan jawapan. Share kepada rakan-rakan anda sekiranya bermanfaat. Jika anda mempunyai sebarang soalan atau pertanyaan atau ingin membuat temujanji dengan Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan, anda boleh hubungi kami di ruangan hubungi kami, atau di Facebook.

     

    Soalan :

    Assalamualaikum w.b.t. Saya Ani dari Kl. Saya ingin bertanya dan mendapatkan pendapat Tuan tentang masalah yang saya hadapi. Saya ialah seorang warganegara Malaysia dan telah berkahwin dengan seorang lelaki yang bukan warganegara. Perkahwinan kami telah diwalikan oleh bapa kandung saya di rumah saya di Klang, Selangor dengan disaksikan oleh 2 orang saksi. Malangnya, kami tidak pernah mendaftarkan perkahwinan kami atas alasan suami saya gagal untuk dapatkan Surat Perakuan Bujang. 2 bulan berkahwin saya didapati mengandung dan setelah kandungan saya berusia 3 bulan kami berkahwin semula mengikut prosedur undang-undang di Malaysia. Perkahwinan ini dibuat atas nasihat kenalan suami saya setelah suami saya berjaya mendapatkan Surat Perakuan Bujang dari negaranya. Timbul isu apabila saya dan suami ingin daftarkan kelahiran anak kami di JPN tetapi ditolak kerana anak kami itu dikatakan telah lahir di luar pernikahan. Saya jadi keliru kerana pada pandangan saya perkahwinan saya dan suami adalah sah disisi Syarak tetapi hanya tidak didaftarkan sahaja. Apa yang perlu saya lakukan? Saya tidak mahu anak kami nanti dicerca dan diejek kelak. Saya amat mengharapkan bantuan Tuan untuk menyelesaikan kekusutan kami. Saya dahului dengan ucapan terima kasih.

     

    pengesahan-nikah-kahwin-dengan-bukan-warganegara-2

     

    Jawapan :

    Wa’alaikumussalam w.b.t

    Saya bahagikan permasalahan Puan ini kepada 4 isu untuk dijawab. Isu tersebut:

     

    • Keesahan pernikahan Puan daripada sudut Hukum Syarak;

    Sesuatu pernikahan sah apabila rukun dan syarat-syarat pernikahan itu dipenuhi. Sacara zahir, pernikahan pertama Puan boleh saya katakan sah kerana memenuhi 5 rukun nikah yang telah digariskan oleh Hukum Syarak iaitu pengantin lelaki, pengantin perempuan, wali, 2 orang saksi, ijab dan qabul. Namun, penelitian terhadap syarat sah rukun pernikahan juga perlulah diteliti satu persatu. Seandainya syarat sah kepada rukun nikah itu dipenuhi dan tidak timbul sebarang keraguan, dapat saya nyatakan bahawa pernikahan Puan yang pertama itu adalah sah di sisi Hukum Syarak. Jika sebaliknya, pernikahan Puan yang pertama itu akan menjadi tidak sah di sisi Hukum Syarak dan pernikahan itu perlulah difarakkan. Oleh itu, bagi menentukan sah atau tidaknya pernikahan Puan yang pertama ini, saya cadangkan agar Puan membuat permohonan pengesahan nikah di Mahkamah Syariah yang berhampiran.

    • Kaedah untuk mendapatkan pengesahan nikah;

    Pengesahan pernikahan Puan yang pertama perlulah dibuat melalui permohonan di Mahkamah Syariah. Adalah dimaklumi kaedah permohonan pengesahan nikah adalah berbeza mengikut negeri bergantung kepada enakmen pentadbiran dan undang-undang keluarga islam negeri-negeri. Bagi mengesahkan nikah Puan, Puan boleh ke Mahkamah Rendah Syariah Klang.  Kaedah permohonanya adalah Puan perlu membuat permohonan dengan mengisi borang MS3 dan MS26 iaitu Afidavit Sokongan seperti yang telah diperuntukkan di bawah seksyen 13 Enakmen Tatacara Mal Mahkamah Syariah (Negeri Selangor) 2003. Puan juga perlu kemukakan segala dokumen yang diminta seperti kad pengenalan Puan, pasport suami dan mana-mana dokumen yang berkaitan. Setelah segala dokumen lengkap, Puan digalakkan kemukakan saksi di Mahkamah bagi kes pengesahan nikah tersebut. Saksi tersebut mestilah mereka yang terlibat pada majlis akad nikah Puan itu. Sekiranya terdapat gambar yang diambil, gambar tersebut juga boleh Puan kemukakan sebagai bukti. Jika pernikahan Puan diputuskan sah oleh Mahkamah, maka Puan hendaklah mendaftarkan pernikahan Puan itu di Pejabat Agama Islam Daerah di Bahagian Pendaftaran Nikah Cerai Rujuk di mana Puan bermastautin untuk mendapatkan sijil nikah dan seterusnya bawa bersama sijil nikah ke JPN untuk pendaftaran anak. Sekiranya pernikahan Puan diputuskan tidak sah, maka perkahwinan Puan dan suami akan difarakkan. Namun, anak tersebut bukanlah berstatus anak luar nikah, tetapi anak syubhah.

     

    • Kedudukan sijil nikah kedua; dan

    Bilamana mahkamah memutuskan bahawa perkahwinan Puan yang pertama adalah sah, saya cadangkan Puan mohon kepada Mahkamah untuk membatalkan sijil perkahwinan Puan yang kedua dengan membuat pindaan pada sijil nikah tesebut. Pindaan yang saya maksudkan di sini ialah Puan menggunakan sijil nikah Puan yang kedua itu namun masih menggunakan nombor daftar yang sama cumanya pindaan dilakukan kepada tarikh pernikahan yang terdapat pada sijil nikah Puan itu.

     

    • Konflik undang-undang.

    Konflik undang-undang yang dapat saya lihat dalam situasi Puan ini adalah apabila pendaftarkan kelahiran anak Puan tidak dapat dilakukan. Puan perlu maklum bahawa pernikahan yang sah disisi Syarak perlu didaftarkan agar sijil nikah dapat dikeluarkan oleh Jabatan Agama Islam Daerah bagi membolehkan pendaftaran anak Puan dilakukan. Ini bertujuan bagi menjamin bahawa sesuatu pernikahan itu adalah memenuhi kehendak Hukum Syarak dan seterusnya memenuhi keperluan undang-undang.

    Setiap prosedur perlu dipenuhi bagi menjamin kredibiliti Undang-undang Syariah Malaysia serta memartabatkan sistem perundangan syariah sekaligus. Walaupun begitu, undang-undang tidaklah kejam dan menghukum. Hal ini kerana seperti yang telah diperuntukkan di bawah seksyen 12(2) Enakmen Undang-undang Keluarga Islam (Negeri Selangor) 2003, telah memperuntukkan bahawa :

    “ Walau apapun subseksyen (1) dan tanpa menjejaskan seksyen 40 (2), sesuatu perkahwinan yang telah diupacarakan berlawanan dengan mana-mana peruntukan Bahagian ini tetapi sebaliknya sah mengikut Hukum Syara’, boleh didaftarkan di bawah Enakmen ini dengan perintah daripada Mahkamah”

    Dalam situasi Puan ini, Mahkamah perlu membuat pengesahan nikah Puan yang pertama bagi membolehkannya didaftarkan mengikut undang-undang keluarga Islam di Malaysia. Oleh itu, saya mencadangkan kepada Puan untuk melantik mana-mana Peguam Syarie bagi membantu Puan dalam  membuat permohonan pengesahan nikah Puan kali pertama. Bantuan daripada Peguam Syarie dapat memudahkan dan melicinkan proses permohonan pengesahan pernikahan Puan di Mahkamah kelak.

    Wallahu a’lam.

     

    Oleh : Rafini binti Aman

    Dari: Faiz Adnan & Associates

  • kelayakan mutah

    Apakah itu Mut’ah? Layakkah saya untuk menerima Mut’ah?

    Soalan mengenai MUT’AH:

    PEGUAM SYARIE Faiz Adnan, setelah bercerai dengan suami, saya diberitahu bahawa saya boleh menuntut harta sepencarian, nafkah eddah, hak penjagaan anak serta nafkah anak, dan mut’ah daripada suami saya. Namun, saya kurang pasti apakah itu mut’ah? Adakah saya benar-benar layak untuk menerimanya walaupun saya adalah seorang yang berjaya dalam kerjaya saya dan mempunyai pendapatan sendiri? Sekiranya saya layak, adakah saya boleh menuntut seberapa banyak amaun yang saya mahu atau mahkamah akan menetapkan amaun tersebut?

    Jawapan:

                Merujuk kepada soalan Puan di atas, mut’ah adalah suatu bentuk bayaran yang menggambarkan penghargaan kepada bekas isteri yang telah berkhidmat untuk suami dan anak-anak sepanjang tempoh perkahwinan. Menurut pengertian yang diberikan oleh Wahbah Zuhaili dalam kitabnya Fiqh Al Islami Wa Adillatuhu, mut’ah adalah suatu pemberian harta yang wajib keatas lelaki untuk membayar kepada isterinya yang diceraikan pada masa hidup, dengan talak, bergantung kepada beberapa syarat. Seksyen 2 Akta Undang-undang Keluarga Islam (Wilayah-wilayah Persekutuan) 1984 juga menyatakan bahawa mut’ah adalah bayaran saguhati yang diberi dari segi Hukum Syara’ kepada isteri yang diceraikan.

                Selepas Puan dan suami diisytiharkan telah bercerai, Puan haruslah memfailkan ke mahkamah bagi menuntut mut’ah dengan menyatakan jumlah yang dirasakan relevan. Seterusnya, Puan haruslah membuktikan kepada mahkamah bahawa bekas suami adalah seorang yang mampu untuk membayar sejumlah bayaran mut’ah yang dituntut tersebut.

                Mut’ah disyariatkan atas lelaki kepada wanita yang telah diceraikan untuk menjadi bekalan bagi meringankan beban mereka yang disebabkan oleh perpisahan dan memulakan kehidupan baru tanpa suami. Selain itu, mut’ah menjadi suatu tuntutan selepas penceraian bagi mengambil hati bekas isteri di samping dapat mengubati perasaan sakit hati dan rasa benci yang berpunca daripada penceraian yang berlaku. Ia juga bagi menutup perasaan sedih, dan malu apabila menerima sangkaan buruk daripada masyarakat terhadap penceraian tersebut.

                Pengarang kitab I’anah at-Talibin, pada Juz 3, m/s 356 juga ada menyatakan bahawa ‘wajib ke atas suami membayar mut’ah kepada isteri yang sudah disentuh (dipersetubuhi) walaupun ianya (isteri itu) seorang hamba, dengan sebab berlakunya penceraian yang bukan kerana kematian salah seorang daripada kedua-dua mereka’.

                Maka jelaslah, seorang lelaki wajib melaksanakan bayaran kepada isteri yang diceraikan, bergantung kepada beberapa syarat.

                Seksyen 56 Akta Undang-undang Keluarga Islam (Wilayah-wilayah Persekutuan) 1984 menyatakan bahawa perempuan yang diceraikan tanpa sebab yang patut boleh menuntut mut’ah dan mahkamah boleh memerintahkan suami untuk membayar sejumlah wang yang patut & wajar mengikut hukum syarak. Tafsiran frasa tanpa sebab yang patut telah diperincikan lagi dalam kes Sapiee bin Muda lwn Adnan Hawa bt Mohamad telah merujuk kepada Kitab Mughni Muhtaj yang telah menggariskan syarat kelayakan seorang isteri bagi menuntut mut’ah, antaranya ialah:

    • Penceraian dengan kematian suami / isteri – suami tidak diwajibkan untuk membayar mut’ah
    • Penceraian berpunca daripada suami yang mewajibkan seorang suami untuk membayar mut’ah.
    • Talaq
    • Li’an
    • Suami murtad
    • Fasakh nikah disebabkan aib suami sebelum akad nikah
    • Penceraian berpunca daripada isteri semata-mata – tidak diwajibkan ke atas suami untuk membayar mut’ah:
    • Isteri murtad
    • Isteri memeluk Islam
    • Fasakh nikah kerana aib isteri
    • Isteri memfasakhkan nikah kerana suami papa
    • Isteri memfasakhkan nikah kerana suami mati pucuk

                Puan dan bekas suami seharusnya bersetuju akan suatu amaun bagi bayaran mut’ah. Namun sekiranya gagal mencapai satu persetujuan, Hakim akan menentukan amaun tersebut dan keputusan hakim haruslah dihormati.

                Menurut Kitab Ianah Al Talibin, Juz 3 yang dipetik dalam penghakiman kes Tukimah Ahmad lwn Jamaluddin Ibrahim, berdasarkan ayat 236 daripada Surah Al-Baqarah, penulis kitab tersebut telah menyatakan bahawa kadar penentuan mut’ah mestilah dengan mengambil kira apa yang sesuai dengan keadaan kedua-dua pihak pada masa penceraian.

                Oleh yang demikian, mahkamah dalam mempertimbangkan kadar mut’ah akan melihat kepada faktor-faktor seperti di bawah:-

    • Kemampuan suami
    • Tempoh perkahwinan
    • Taraf hidup pasangan semasa perkahwinan
    • Status pendidikan dan pekerjaan isteri
    • Isteri tidak pernah diisytiharkan nusyuz
    • Menjaga kebajikan rumahtangga dengan baik.
    • Usia pihak-pihak
    • Lain-lain bentuk pengorbanan

          Maka, Puan boleh memfailkan tuntutan mut’ah ke mahkamah tinggi dan menyatakan jumlah yang relevan untuk dituntut. Selepas itu, Puan hendaklah membuktikan bahawa bekas suami adalah seorang yang berkemampuan untuk membayar jumlah yang dituntut tersebut, dengan mengemukakan slip gaji bekas suami, geran tanah, atau apa-apa dokumen atau bukti yang menunjukkan harta-harta beliau. Sekiranya Puan dan bekas suami boleh mencapai persetujuan bersama untuk suatu amaun mut’ah, maka tidak perlu untuk kes mut’ah ini difailkan di mahkamah. Jika sebaliknya berlaku dimana terdapat pertelingkahan tentang mut’ah, kes ini perlulah dibawa ke mahkamah bagi hakim untuk menentukannya. Mempunyai pendapatan dan kerjaya sendiri tidak menghalang Puan untuk menuntut mut’ah kerana ianya adalah hak seorang perempuan apabila diceraikan.

    Untuk sebarang pertanyaan, atau sekiranya anda ingin menetapkan temujanji dengan Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan, anda boleh menghubungi kami menerusi telefon/email.

  • tempoh-proses-menuntut-fasakh

    Berapa Lamakah Tempoh Dan Masa Diperlukan Bagi Proses Menuntut Fasakh?

    1. Proses penyediaan dan pemfailan pliding sehingga tarikh sebutan (1 bulan)
    2. Proses sebutan untuk menyempurnakan pliding dan pengurusan kes (2 hingga 4 bulan)
    3. Perbicaraan penuh diantara 8 bulan sehingga 12 bulan
    4. Penyediaan hujjah bertulis sehingga keputusan (3 bulan)

    Ramai yang bertanya/mengajukan soalan berkaitan tajuk di atas kepada pihak PEGUAM SYARIE Faiz Adnan Associates sama ada melalui telefon, SMS, whatsapp, termasuk juga ruangan hubungi kami. Di sini kami ingin berkongsi dengan anda soalan yang ditanya oleh Puan Ros (bukan nama sebenar) mengenai tempoh masa bagi proses menuntut fasakh dan berapa jumlah kos perkhidmatan bagi kes terbabit berserta jawapan dari pihak kami. Semoga penjelasan ini sedikit sebanyak membantu anda membuat penilaian dan penelitian tentang langkah penyelesaian yang perlu anda ambil dalam menangani masalah anda.

    Soalan:

    Saya ingin tahu berapakah jumlah wang yg dikenakan bagi perkhidmatan tuan bagi sya menuntut cerai dari suami saya? Selalunya berapa lamakah proses penceraian menuntut fasakh ini? Terima kasih.

    Jawapan:

    Puan Ros, terima kasih kerana menghubungi pihak saya. Saya Faiz Adnan Peguam Syarie.
    Bagi menjawab 2 persoalan yang diajukan, suka saya terangkan soalan ke-2 terlebih dahulu.
    Puan bertanya berapa lamakah kes fasakh mengambil masa sehingga kes selesai. Saya ambil contoh kebiasaannya kes saya bawa di Kuala Lumpur dan di Selangor. Pertama sekiranya ke semua dokumen dan fakta telah lengkap, dari situ kami akan ambil masa 7 hari bekerja untuk memfailkannya di mahkamah.

    Pada hari penfailan, selepas semua pliding dan dokumen diperlukan di terima barulah ianya diproses dan hari yang sama juga tarikh sebutan kali pertama akan diberikan. Biasanya dalam tempoh 21 hari daripada tarikh pemfailan, sebutan pertama akan dibuat. Dalam pada itu penyampaian saman akan dilakukan oleh pihak peguam syarie. Semasa sebutan kali pertama, peguam syarie akan perkenalkan kes dan menjelaskan tentang status penyampaian saman berjaya atau sebaliknya.

    Sekiranya saman sempurna disampaikan dan defendan hadir, maka peguam syarie akan mohon mahkamah berikan masa 2 minggu sehingga sebulan untuk defendan failkan pembelaan dan biasanya 2 minggu lagi untuk pihak peguam syarie untuk memfailkan jawapan kepada pembelaan. Ini bererti tempoh yang diberikan untuk melengkapkan suratcara2 guaman akan mengambil masa 1 bulan setengah sehingga 2 bulan. Kemudian mahkamah akan memberikan tarikh sebutan kedua untuk mempastikan pliding lengkap.

    Dalam keadaan biasa sekiranya defendan melantik peguam selepas sebutan pertama kes, peguam defendan akan memerlukan masa yang lebih panjang untuk menjawab tuntutan puan.

    Selanjutnya jika semua suratcara lengkap maka hakim akan samada terus memberikan tarikh perbicaraan atau beliau akan mengarahkan suatu pengurusan kes dibuat. Jika pilihan ke2 dibuat, maka sebulan atau 2 bulan lagi masa diperlukan oleh peguam syarie untuk menyediakan draf dan disemak serta untuk dipersetujui oleh kesemua pihak terbabit di dalam kes itu.

    Perbicaraan di Selangor lebih singkat berbanding di Wilayah Persekutuan . Ini kerana di Selangor hakim secara praktisnya akan mengarahkan perbicaraan dibuat secara afidavit keterangan. Maka kesemua pihak baik plaintif dan saksi2nya, defendan mahupun saksi2nya menyediakan afidavit keterangan untuk membolehkan hakim mudah memahami perjalanan perbicaraan dalam masa yang singkat.

    Berbanding di Wilayah Persekutuan, hakim bicara lebih senang untuk membicarakan kes melalui keterangan lisan sahaja. Maka itu perbicaraan mungkin menjadi panjang jika tidak dikawal oleh hakim bicara dengan baik.

    Peguam syarie juga diberi peluang untuk menyoal balas pihak defendan dan saksi2nya begitu juga sebaliknya peguam defendan juga berhak atas kapasiti yang sama juga.

    Jangkaan kebiasaannya untuk perbicaraan penuh di Selangor akan memerlukan masa 8 bulan sehingga setahun.

    Berbanding perbicaraan penuh di wilayah persekutuan mungkin lebih dari itu atas alasan perbicaraan lisan.

    Setelah selesai perbicaraan maka kedua2 peguam syarie akan memfailkan hujjah masing2 dan tempoh 2 bulan. Bulan selanjutnya barulah keputusan dibacakan oleh hakim bicara.

    Kesimpulannya berdasarkan penjelasan yang agak detail di atas kita boleh rumuskan jika perbicaraan penuh dengan kehadiran defendan dan peguam syarienya maka kita boleh anggarkan seperti berikut:

    1. Proses penyediaan dan pemfailan pliding sehingga tarikh sebutan (1 bulan)
    2. Proses sebutan untuk menyempurnakan pliding dan pengurusan kes (2 hingga 4 bulan)
    3. Perbicaraan penuh diantara 8 bulan sehingga 12 bulan
    4. Penyediaan hujjah bertulis sehingga keputusan (3 bulan)

    Saya harap puan memahami situasi yang saya berikan tadi. Tidaklah bererti ia adalah suatu yang tepat dan tetap malah jika situasinya berbeza seperti suami enggan hadir maka perjalanan kes puan akan jauh lebih cepat dan pantas. Saya hanya nyatakan berdasarkan kebiasaan yang berlaku bagi kes faskh di mahkamah.

    Persoalan awal puan iaitu berapakah kos bagi menguruskan kes fasakh ini. Jawapannya ia akan bergantung kepada beberapa faktor:

    Pertama fee bergantung kepada tahap kesusahan membawa kes ini di mahkamah. Misalnya kalau bukti tak lengkap atau tidak meyakinkan atau saksi tidak mencukupi atau saksi lemah, maka fee guaman lebih tinggi.

    Kedua fee juga bergantung kepada sejauhmanakah kemahiran peguam syarie yang membawa kes puan. Biasanya jika peguam syarie itu punyai pengalaman lebih 15 tahun maka feenya lebih mahal daripada peguam syarie yang masih baru. Pengalaman akan memahirkan seseorang peguam.

    Ketiga lokasi mahkamah. Lebih jauh mahkamah dengan pejabat peguam syarie maka bertambah lagi kos peguam tersebut.

    Jadi berdasarkan faktor di atas saya harap puan dapat gambaran jelas tentang kes fasakh dan tempoh masa yang diperlukan serta fee guaman seseorang peguam syarie.

    Sila hubungi saya Faiz Adnan di talian 012-6676 200 untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang kes puan.

    Sekian wassalam.
    Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan
    23 April 2016
    Untuk sebarang pertanyaan, atau sekiranya anda ingin menghubungi Peguam Syarie Faiz Adnan atau ingin membuat temujanji, anda boleh menghubungi kami melalui email, Facebook atau terus menghubungi no telefon pejabat kami.

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